Publications

Since its creation, the PPI Database has been the main information source for trends in private participation in infrastructure in developing countries for a large number of publications. The list below contain publications that rely on data from the PPI Database. If you have any publications that you would like featured on this page, please email them to us at dsaha1@worldbank.org

  • Global
    Biousse, Kim and Kaori Miyamoto.2014
    Case Studies on Leveraging Private Investment for Infrastructure

    Source: Development Co-operation Directorate Working Paper, OECD Publishing.

    This paper provides an overview of infrastructure projects with private investment in infrastructure based on data extracted from the World Bank PPI database. The data analysis by number of infrastructure projects with private participation shows that two thirds of projects are supported by multilateral development banks only. In terms of income levels, there is little support to projects in low-income countries, but the support is more or less equally divided between lower middle income countries and upper middle income countries.

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    Sharma, Chandan. 2012.
    Determinants of PPP in Infrastructure in Developing Economies

    Source: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy 6 (2): 149–66.

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that determine Public Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure by using the World Bank PPI database for the period 1990-2008. The results suggest that large size and relatively higher income markets attract more PPP projects. The empirical evidence also suggests that macroeconomic stability, quality of regulation and governance are important factors in determining PPP in the infrastructure.

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    Boudet Hilary Schaffer, Jayasundera Dilanka Chinthana, and Davis Jennifer.2011.
    Drivers of Conflict in Developing Country Infrastructure Projects: Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors

    Source: Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (7): 498–511.

    The principal objective of this research is to identify combinations of country, project, and stakeholder factors that are associated with the emergence of legal and political conflict within natural gas and oil pipeline projects and water supply concessions and leases. The analysis includes data from 26 infrastructure projects spanning 31 countries. The water-supply sector cases were drawn from two databases - the World Bank’s PPI database and the Project Finance International project database. Overall, the study findings suggest that several factors associated with conflict in infrastructure projects can be minimized with careful project design

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    Moszoro, Marian, Gonzalo Araya, Fernanda Ruiz-Nuñez and Jordan Schwartz.2014
    Institutional and Political Determinants of Private Participation in Infrastructure

    Source: Discussion Paper No 2014-15. Prepared for the Roundtable: Public Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure: Renegotiations, how to approach them and economic outcomes. 27-28 October 2014, George Mason University, Washington D.C., USA..

     

    The paper aims to assess the determinants of private financing of infrastructure in emerging markets and developing economies. The authors assemble a large panel of project-level technical and financial data (using the World Bank PPI database) and country-level economic, institutional, political, and governance variables to. The study shows that upstream “enabling” institutions, policies, and regulations and sector economics need to be addressed simultaneously to facilitate private infrastructure investment financing.

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    Jandhyala, Srividya. 2016
    International Organizations and Political Risk–The Case of Multilateral Development Banks in Infrastructure Projects

    This paper examines how Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) partner with firms to lower the likelihood of project distress caused by ex-post recontracting between States and firms. Analysis is conducted using a sample of 2117 infrastructure projects from the World Bank PPI database, which include investments made from 1995 to 2009 and cover 45 developing countries. Empirical results provide evidence that private investment projects with MDB participation are less likely to be distressed.

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    Ahmad, Ehtisham, Amar Bhattacharya, Annalisa Vinella, and Kezhou Xiao. 2014
    Involving the Private Sector and PPPs in Financing Public Investments: Some Opportunities and Challenges

    Source: LSE Asia Research Centre Working Paper 87.

    The paper stresses on the issue of accurate information on the generation of sub-national liabilities, as it is of critical importance both to generate adequate signals for investment but also for the macroeconomic management. Using the World Bank PPI database, it describes some general trends in involving the private sector in public projects. It then looks narrowly on key features of public–private partnerships and asymmetric information and finally, draws some policy conclusions.

    Show more
    Rudra, Nita, Nathan M. Jensen, and Nita Rudra. 2011
    Openness and the Politics of Potable Water

    Source: Comparative Political Studies 44 (6): 771–803.

    The paper focuses on the interplay of trade and politics—both international and domestic—as the primary driving forces behind improvements in (or constraints to) water access. Empirical evidence from 77 developing countries and case studies of Vietnam and India provide support for this hypothesis. Water privatization data was drawn from the World Bank PPI database to test the hypothesis that privatization exacerbated inequality and prevented water access.

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    Jiang, Yi, Mike W. Peng, Xiaohua Yang, and Canan C. Mutlu. 2015.
    Privatization, Governance, and Survival: MNE Investments in Private Participation Projects in Emerging Economies

    Source: Journal of World Business 50 (2): 294–301.

    This paper integrates transaction cost economics, bargaining model, and the institution-based view, to examine the bargaining process between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and host governments. Leveraging data from 113 emerging economies from the World Bank PPI database, the paper finds that the survival of MNE investments is dependent on the bargaining outcomes between MNE and host governments around investment location, governance structure, and host governments’ ownership of the private participation projects.

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    Siemiatycki, Matti. 2013.
    The Global Production of Transportation Public–Private Partnerships

    Source: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (4): 1254–72.

    Two large datasets were used to examine the global geography of roads, bridges, railways, urban transit, seaport and airport public–private partnerships - the Major Project Survey and the World Bank PPI database. The results show that the production of public–private partnerships worldwide has been dominated by a relatively small number of highly globalized construction contractors, engineering firms, financiers, accountancies and consultants from developed countries, who have focused their activities in a narrow set of regions

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    Uhlenbruck, Klaus, Peter Rodriguez, Jonathan Doh, and Lorraine Eden. 2006.
    The Impact of Corruption on Entry Strategy: Evidence from Telecommunication Projects in Emerging Economies

    Source: Organization Science 17 (3): 402–14.

    This paper examines how firms adjust their strategy for entering foreign markets in corrupt environments and how different types of corruption affect firms’ choices. Using data from the World Bank’s PPI Database on 220 telecommunications development projects in 64 emerging economies, the results show that firms adapt to the pressures of corruption via short-term contracting and entry into joint ventures.

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    Pérez-D’Oleo, J., C. Castro, I. Herraiz, and S. Carpintero. 2015
    The Influence of the Institutional Environment on Public–private Partnership Transport Project

    Source: Urban Transport XXI, 146: 399–410

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of institutional environment on the investment carried out through public–private partnerships in middle-and-low income countries for the period 1996–2011. This paper carries out a statistical analysis of the institutional environment indicators, and data of public–private investment in transport, for 80 countries, taken from the World Bank PPI database.

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    Baker, Nicole Ballouz. 2016
    Transaction Costs in Public–Private Partnerships: Weight of Institutional Quality in Developing Countries

    Source: Public Performance & Management Review 40 (2): 431–55.

    This paper explores the impact of institutional quality on the expansion of public–private partnership (PPP) markets in developing countries. Panel regressions, on a sample of 83 developing countries for the period 1999– 2011 from the World Bank PPI database, provide evidence on the positive impact of judicial independence and regulatory quality in attracting private investors to PPP markets regardless of the degree of uncertainty in the exchange environment.

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    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, and Debashis Chakraborty.2016.
    Urbanization and Demand for Water and Sanitation Services: An Analysis on Cross-Region Investment Requirements

    Source: MPRA Paper. University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Given the poor access to water supply and sanitation across several regions, the present analysis attempts to estimate the demand for investment in this sector. The empirical estimates reveals that to achieve universal access to improved WSS by 2019, the stock of investment in water services should reach US $2,240 billion at 2005 prices in 2019. The present quantum and distribution of private investment in the water services sector across the sub-regions was based on the World Bank PPI database.

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  • Water
    Estache, Antonio, and Atsushi Iimi. 2011.
    Unbundling Infrastructure Procurement: Evidence from Water Supply and Sewage Projects

    Source: Utilities Policy 19 (2): 104–14.

    Using data on public procurement auctions for water and sewage projects in developing countries, this paper shows that bidder entry is crucially endogenous, especially because it is determined by the auctioneer's bundling and unbundling strategy. Using the World Bank PPI database, it find that the top 10 percent largest firms are awarded about half of total infrastructure public–private partnership contracts.

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    Boudet Hilary Schaffer, Jayasundera Dilanka Chinthana, and Davis Jennifer. 2011.
    Drivers of Conflict in Developing Country Infrastructure Projects: Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors

    Source: Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (7): 498–511.

    The principal objective of this research is to identify combinations of country, project, and stakeholder factors that are associated with the emergence of legal and political conflict within natural gas and oil pipeline projects and water supply concessions and leases. The analysis includes data from 26 infrastructure projects spanning 31 countries. The water-supply sector cases were drawn from two databases - the World Bank’s PPI database and the Project Finance International project database. Overall, the study findings suggest that several factors associated with conflict in infrastructure projects can be minimized with careful project design.

    Show more
    Kauffmann, Céline.2011.
    Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors Financing Water Quality Management

    Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 27 (1): 83–99.

    This paper examines the recent trends in the development of wastewater infrastructure. It then discusses the investment needs and reviews the potential sources of funding, before turning to recent trends in private-sector participation in water and wastewater treatment infrastructure and the framework conditions to make this participation work in the public interest. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine China's private participation in the wastewater sector.

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    Kosec, Katrina. 2012.
    Malnutrition, Child Health, and Water Quality: Is There a Role for Private Sector Participation in South Asia?

    Source: CESifo Economic Studies 58 (2): 450–70.

    This article discusses the potential of private sector participation (PSP) to improve the urban water supply in South Asia. Empirical evidence from urban Africa (in part using data from the World Bank PPI database) is presented to show PSP in water is associated with a lower incidence of diarrheal disease and higher rates of access to piped water among young children.

    Show more
    Bakker, Karen.2013.
    Neoliberal Versus Postneoliberal Water: Geographies of Privatization and Resistance

    Source: Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103 (2): 253–60.

    This article documents the increasingly variegated pattern of urban water supply privatization since the 1990s. The analysis cautions against sweeping generalizations of post neoliberalism often associated with putative alternatives to private water supply. Private sector involvement within water supply, in terms of numbers and investments, was estimated from the World Bank PPI database.

    Show more
    Rudra, Nita, Nathan M. Jensen, and Nita Rudra.2011.
    Openness and the Politics of Potable Water

    Source: Comparative Political Studies 44 (6): 771–803.

    The paper focuses on the interplay of trade and politics—both international and domestic—as the primary driving forces behind improvements in (or constraints to) water access. Empirical evidence from 77 developing countries and case studies of Vietnam and India provide support for this hypothesis. Water privatization data was drawn from the World Bank PPI database to test the hypothesis that privatization exacerbated inequality and prevented water access.

    Show more
    Jensen, Olivia. 2017.
    Public–private Partnerships for Water in Asia: A Review of Two Decades of Experience

    Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 33 (1): 4–30.

    This article reviews the development of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in water services in Asia over the last two decades and situates the Asian experience within the wider global context. Through a comparative analysis of PPP data from two different sources (the World Bank PPI Database and the Private Sector Participation in Water Database maintained by Global Water Intelligence), the article highlights the critical issue of how ‘private’ is defined in understanding the extent of PPP in Asia, due to the important role played by enterprises under mixed public and private ownership.

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    Post, Alison, and María Victoria Murillo. 2012.
    Revisiting the Obsolescing Bargain in Post-Crisis Argentina: Investor Portfolios and Regulatory Outcomes

    Source: Trabajo Presentado En El Seminario Del Departamento de Ciencia Política, UTDT, Buenos Aires.

    The paper examines variation in the conditions for and longevity of private investment in thirty electricity and water utilities in Argentina after a deep crisis that triggered ‘obsolescing bargains.’ It argues that investors’ prior choices regarding portfolio structure affect their post-crisis experiences. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate the number of privatized state enterprises in the two sectors in developing countries in the 1990s

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    Tan, Jeff.2012.
    The Pitfalls of Water Privatization: Failure and Reform in Malaysia

    Source: World Development 40 (12): 2552–63.

    This paper examines why private participation in infrastructure in water continues to be promoted despite poor results in developing countries. The global evidence of capital investment across regions and sectors is drawn from the World Bank PPI Database for the period 1991–2009. It argues that the main characteristics of infrastructure discourage private investment and necessitate state subsidies which dilute private risks and incentives and facilitate rent-seeking.

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    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, and Debashis Chakraborty.2016.
    Urbanization and Demand for Water and Sanitation Services: An Analysis on Cross-Region Investment Requirements

    Source: MPRA Paper. University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Given the poor access to water supply and sanitation across several regions, the present analysis attempts to estimate the demand for investment in this sector. The empirical estimates reveals that to achieve universal access to improved WSS by 2019, the stock of investment in water services should reach US $2,240 billion at 2005 prices in 2019. The present quantum and distribution of private investment in the water services sector across the sub-regions was based on the World Bank PPI database

    Show more
  • General Trends
    Chen, Chuan, Qi Wang, and Rui Ying Fang. 2014.
    An Empirical Analysis of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Projects in the Renewable Energy Sector of China

    Source: Advanced Materials Research 869–870: 488–94.

    Aiming at a better understanding of the activities and trends of the private sector in the renewable energy sector of China, this study retrieved project level data from the World Bank PPI database, and examined the data from various dimensions, such as investment size, PPI type, technology, and geographical distribution. The results confirmed the high installation cost of renewable energy projects and highlighted the importance of government subsidies at present and technological advances in the long run to support the development of renewable energy.

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    Mukhopadhyay, Chandrima.2011.
    Are Private Investments Serving the Poor in India?

    Source: Journal of Infrastructure Development 3 (1): 39–63

    This article investigates whether the central government has been successful in directing public-private partnerships (PPPs) towards the poor regions in India. The study uses data from the World Bank PPI database to determine private investment stocks in multiple sectors across various regions in terms of an investment index. This study shows that PPPs in India contributes towards the process of uneven development.

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    Loxley, John.2013.
    Are Public–private Partnerships (PPPs) the Answer to Africa’s Infrastructure Needs?

    Source: Review of African Political Economy 40 (137): 485–95.

    This paper explores the nature of public private partnerships (PPPs), the extent of their use and their location by sector in Africa using data from World Bank PPI database. It also examines the arguments advanced for the promotion of PPPs and looks critically at them. It concludes that great caution should be exercised in the use of PPPs.

    Show more
    Kauffmann, Céline.2011.
    Financing Water Quality Management

    Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 27 (1): 83–99.

    This paper examines the recent trends in the development of wastewater infrastructure. It then discusses the investment needs and reviews the potential sources of funding, before turning to recent trends in private-sector participation in water and wastewater treatment infrastructure and the framework conditions to make this participation work in the public interest. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine China's private participation in the wastewater sector.

    Show more
    Mishra, Aswini Kumar, Kunapareddy Narendra, and Bibhu Prasad Kar.2013.
    Growth And Infrastructure Investment In India: Achievements, Challenges, And Opportunities

    Source: Economic Annals 58 (196): 51–70.

    The paper analyses the recent scenario of infrastructure investment in India. It conducts an overview of the trends in infrastructure investment from the 10th Five Year Plan onwards, and tries to examine the linkage between infrastructure and economic growth. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine the private sector investment commitments to infrastructure projects in India, Pakistan and other South Asian countries.

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    The Infrastructure Consortium for Africa Secretariat2014.
    Infrastructure Financing Trends in Africa 2013

    The ICA Annual Report 2013 shows that progress is being made in channeling more finance from regional actors, as well as international institutions, to strategic and sustainable projects. The report uses data from 2009-2013 in the World Bank PPI database to analyze the investment trends in Africa.

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    Kravets, Olga.2013.
    Infrastructure Investments in Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA)

    Source: Eastern Partnership Technical Assistance Trust Fund (EIB) Working Papers 2013/01

    The paper is aimed to spotlight the key infrastructure investments issues and trends in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It takes stock and look at the evolution and composition of infrastructure finance in ECA, main funding institutions and international financial institutions that work in the region. Investment volumes in the region are estimated based on the available data from World Bank PPI database and other multilateral development banks.

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    Eberhard, Anton, and Katharine Gratwick.2013.
    Investment Power in Africa: Where from and Where to?

    Source: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 14 (1): 39–46.

    The paper uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate the amount of private investments that have been recorded between 1990 and 2011. It details a number of success stories, including Kenya, South Africa and (potentially) Nigeria, whose policy innovations have replication potential in other Sub-Saharan African countries and beyond.

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    Ahmad, Ehtisham, Amar Bhattacharya, Annalisa Vinella, and Kezhou Xiao. 2014.
    Involving the Private Sector and PPPs in Financing Public Investments: Some Opportunities and Challenges

    Source: LSE Asia Research Centre Working Paper 87.

    The paper stresses on the issue of accurate information on the generation of sub-national liabilities, as it is of critical importance both to generate adequate signals for investment but also for the macroeconomic management. Using the World Bank PPI database, it describes some general trends in involving the private sector in public projects. It then looks narrowly on key features of public–private partnerships and asymmetric information and finally, draws some policy conclusions.

    Show more
    Kosec, Katrina. 2012.
    Malnutrition, Child Health, and Water Quality: Is There a Role for Private Sector Participation in South Asia?

    Source: CESifo Economic Studies 58 (2): 450–70.

    This article discusses the potential of private sector participation (PSP) to improve the urban water supply in South Asia. Empirical evidence from urban Africa (in part using data from the World Bank PPI database) is presented to show PSP in water is associated with a lower incidence of diarrheal disease and higher rates of access to piped water among young children.

    Show more
    Bakker, Karen. 2013.
    Neoliberal Versus Post neoliberal Water: Geographies of Privatization and Resistance

    Source: Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103 (2): 253–60.

    This article documents the increasingly variegated pattern of urban water supply privatization since the 1990s. The analysis cautions against sweeping generalizations of post neoliberalism often associated with putative alternatives to private water supply. Private sector involvement within water supply, in terms of numbers and investments, was estimated from the World Bank PPI database.

    Show more
    Rudra, Nita, Nathan M. Jensen, and Nita Rudra.2011.
    Openness and the Politics of Potable Water

    Source: Comparative Political Studies 44 (6): 771–803.

    The paper focuses on the interplay of trade and politics—both international and domestic—as the primary driving forces behind improvements in (or constraints to) water access. Empirical evidence from 77 developing countries and case studies of Vietnam and India provide support for this hypothesis. Water privatization data was drawn from the World Bank PPI database to test the hypothesis that privatization exacerbated inequality and prevented water access.

    Show more
    Somma, Ernesto, and Alessandro Rubino.2016.
    Public-Private Participation in Energy Infrastructure in Middle East and North African Countries: The Role of Institutions for Renewable Energy Sources Diffusion

    Source: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy; Mersin 6 (3)

    Using the World Bank PPI database, the paper evaluates the performance and trends of public–private partnership (PPP) in energy infrastructures at the global level and in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. It finds that the PPP growth trend traced a steady increase since the start of privatization and liberalization process that took place in most OECD countries in the 90s and peaked in 2012.

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    Jensen, Olivia. 2017.
    Public–private Partnerships for Water in Asia: A Review of Two Decades of Experience

    Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 33 (1): 4–30.

    This article reviews the development of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in water services in Asia over the last two decades and situates the Asian experience within the wider global context. Through a comparative analysis of PPP data from two different sources (the World Bank PPI Database and the Private Sector Participation in Water Database maintained by Global Water Intelligence), the article highlights the critical issue of how ‘private’ is defined in understanding the extent of PPP in Asia, due to the important role played by enterprises under mixed public and private ownership.

    Show more
    Queiroz, Cesar, Nevena Vajdic, and Goran Mladenovic2013.
    Public–private Partnerships in Roads and Government Support: Trends in Transition and Developing Economies

    Source: Transportation Planning and Technology 36 (3): 231–43.

    Drawing on the World Bank PPI Database, this paper analyzes recent trends in road projects with private participation in developing and transition economies, as well as their policy implications. In addition, the paper addresses the issue of the minimum toll rate required to attract private investors.

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    Siemiatycki, Matti. 2013.
    The Global Production of Transportation Public–Private Partnerships

    Source: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (4): 1254–72.

    Two large datasets were used to examine the global geography of roads, bridges, railways, urban transit, seaport and airport public–private partnerships - the Major Project Survey and the World Bank PPI database. The results show that the production of public–private partnerships worldwide has been dominated by a relatively small number of highly globalized construction contractors, engineering firms, financiers, accountancies and consultants from developed countries, who have focused their activities in a narrow set of regions.

    Show more
    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, and Debashis Chakraborty.2016.
    Urbanization and Demand for Water and Sanitation Services: An Analysis on Cross-Region Investment Requirements

    Source: MPRA Paper. University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Given the poor access to water supply and sanitation across several regions, the present analysis attempts to estimate the demand for investment in this sector. The empirical estimates reveals that to achieve universal access to improved WSS by 2019, the stock of investment in water services should reach US $2,240 billion at 2005 prices in 2019. The present quantum and distribution of private investment in the water services sector across the sub-regions was based on the World Bank PPI database.

    Show more
  • Timilsina, Govinda R., Tooraj Jamasb, and Rabindra Nepal.2015.
    A Quarter Century Effort yet to Come of Age : A Survey of Power Sector Reforms in Developing Countries
    This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to compare pre- and post- Asian financial crisis investments.
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    ikoni, Edith, Martin Raiser, Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia, Joseph Kizito Mubiru, Roland N. Clarke, Lorena Vinuela, and Paul Procee.2017.
    Back to Planning : How to Close Brazil’s Infrastructure Gap in Times of Austerity
    Kikoni, Edith, Martin Raiser, Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia, Joseph Kizito Mubiru, Roland N. Clarke, Lorena Vinuela, and Paul Procee. 2017. This paper is a summary of a number of background papers analyzing the challenges of infrastructure in Brazil. The central argument is that Brazil can and will need to substantially increase the efficiency of infrastructure spending to close the gap. This would be possible with appropriate policies, institutions and regulation in place. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate public-private partnership investments in Brazil from 1990-2015.
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    The World Bank, and PPIAF.2015.
    Benchmarking public-private Partnerships Procurement 2015 - A pilot in 10 economies
    The Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) Procurement 2015 report aims to support and enhance the decisions that feed into policy-making by highlighting key aspects of a country’s PPP legal and regulatory framework. The World Bank PPI database is referred to in calculating the number of developing economies implementing PPPs between 2002 and 2013.
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    Marcelo Gordillo, Darwin, Jordan Z. Schwartz, Xavier Cledan Mandri-Perrott, and Ruth Schuyler House. 2017.
    Do Countries Learn from Experience in Infrastructure PPP ? PPP Practice and Contract Cancellation
    This paper examines whether countries do, indeed, learn from experience to improve the probability of success of public-private partnerships (PPPs) at the national level. The data is taken from the based on data from the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database. The results confirm that PPP experience reduces the likelihood of contract cancellation.
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    Marcelo Gordillo, Darwin, and Ruth Schuyler House.2016.
    Effects of Multilateral Support on Infrastructure PPP Contract Cancellation
    This paper examines the relationship between multilateral support and contract cancellation in long-term infrastructure public-private partnerships. The analysis draws on the World Bank PPI dataset and employs a multi-level econometric model. The results suggest that multilateral support has a positive effect on the survival of long-term public-private partnership infrastructure contracts.
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    Torres De Mastle, Clemencia, Javier Encinas, Edward Farquharson, and Edward Raymond Yescombe.2011.
    How to Engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets
    This book looks at emerging public-private partnership markets and discusses the nuances that emerge in the recommended paths when taking into account the diversity in different country contexts. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate private investment commitments in developing countries to new and existing infrastructure projects between 1990-2008.
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    Irwin, Timothy, Ellis J. Juan, and Michael Warlters.2005.
    Infrastructure Development: The Roles of the Public and Private Sectors - World Bank Group’s Approach to Supporting Investments in Infrastructure
    This note describes the World Bank Group’s approach to supporting investment in infrastructure. It uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate PPI commitments in developing countries from 1990-2004.
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    Hussain, Zakir, Mustafa (Editor), and Booz Allen Hamilton.2010.
    Investment in Air Transport Infrastructure: Guidance for Developing Private Participation
    This paper discusses the development of appropriate private sector participation to optimize the provision of air transport infrastructure (ATI). Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to discuss the trends in public-private partnership investments in ATI.
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    Leigland, James.2010.
    PPI in Poor Countries : How to Increase Private Participation in Infrastructure Management and Investment
    The paper explores what role private participation in infrastructure projects can play in improving infrastructure service provision in countries. Data from the World Bank PPI database is used to compare the contribution of private participation in infrastructure in IDA vs non-IDA countries in 1995–2008.
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    Klein, Michael U.2015.
    Public-Private Partnerships : Promise and Hype
    This paper provides perspectives on patterns of public-private partnerships in infrastructure across time and space. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to look at the trends in private investments in developing economies from 1990-2015.
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    Lawrence, Martha B., and Gerald Paul Ollivier.2014.
    Private Capital for Railway Development
    The paper discusses the steps China could take to attract private capital for railway development. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to estimate public-private partnership investment in railways in China from 1990 and 2012.
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    Baietti, Aldo.2001.
    This report reviews the models adopted in East Asia to promote private participation in infrastructure (PPI). Based on data from the World Bank PPI database (1994-1999), it analyzes the impact of the financial crisis on investment trends by private sponsors and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of PPI models in six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam.
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    Oguah, Samuel Kwesi Ewuah, and Pedro E. Sanchez2015.
    Private Sector Participation in Transmission Systems: Making It Work
    The principal argument of the paper is that in the presence of the right policies and investment climate, private sector participation in transmission systems can improve the security, reliability, and quality of supply in a cost-effective manner. It uses data from the World Bank PPI database to analyze the distribution of private sector investments in transmission infrastructure by country income levels between 1994–2013.
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    Kikeri, Sunita, and Aishetu Kolo.2005.
    Privatization : Trends and Recent Developments
    An update of the World Bank Group’s PPI Database shows that in 2008 privatizations in developing countries fell to US$38 billion, down 70 percent from 2007. Privatization slowed as the global financial crisis took hold and as political difficulties continued. At the same time, the wave of nationalizations expected in the wake of the crisis did not occur. Instead, preliminary results for 2009 show a slight uptick in privatization value as markets began to stabilize— and as growing budget deficits led to new pressures for privatization.
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    Marin, Philippe.2009.
    Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Water Utilities : A Review of Experiences in Developing Countries
    This study reviews the overall spread of urban water public-private partnerships during the past 15 years, using the World Bank PPI database, and seeks to respond to the questions of whether and how they have helped to improve services and to expand access for the populations concerned.
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    Sharp, Richard G.2005.
    Results of Railway Privatization in Latin America
    This paper reviews the performance of railway concessions in Latin America over the period extending from the initial Argentina concessions in 1991-1993 through 2004. The cumulative investments made in different regions is this time period is estimated based on the data in the World Bank PPI database. The results of the overall assessment of rail concessioning in Latin America have been positive, particularly for freight railways.
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    Andres, Luis Alberto, Ulf Gerrit Narloch, Stephane Straub, Marianne Fay,Charles James Edward Fox, and Michael Alan Slawson.2017.
    Rethinking Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean : Spending Better to Achieve More
    Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC) infrastructure does not correspond to the aspirations of its growing middle class. The authors propose focusing on closing the "service gap" instead of the "infrastructure gap", by ensuring that spending (particularly of scarce public resources) is well targeted and efficient. Data on investments with private participation in the LAC region were derived from the World Bank PPI Database
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    Vagliasindi, Maria. 2013.
    Revisiting Public-Private Partnerships in the Power Sector
    This paper reviews the impact of the recent financial crisis on public-private partnership investment compared with what happened in earlier financial crises, largely based on information from the World Bank PPI database, on 105 developing countries, covering all the regions, from 1993 to 2008 .
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    Andres, Luis, Gonzalo Araya, and Jordan Schwartz.2013.
    The Effects of Country Risk and Conflict on Infrastructure PPPs
    Through an empirical analysis of the relationship between private participation in infrastructure and country risk, the paper shows that country risk ratings are a reliable predictor of infrastructure investment levels in developing countries. The paper utilizes data from the World Bank PPI database, regarding 130 developing countries from 1990 until 2010.
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    Grishin, Vadim Nikolaevich, and Tom Walton. 2016.
    The Private Provision of Infrastructure : Opportunities for Emerging Markets
    The traditional role of financing and operating infrastructure projects has been shaken up in recent decades by the emergence of public-private partnerships. All investments trends in different sectors and regions in this paper are determined based on the World Bank PPI database. Designed and implemented correctly, these partnerships can bring greater efficiency and sustainability to the provision of public services such as water and sanitation, electric power, transport, and telecommunications.
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    Ruiz-Nuñez, Fernanda, and Clive Harris.2016.
    The State of PPPs: Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets & Developing Economies 1991-2015
    This report uses data from the World Bank PPI Database to analyze broad trends of public-private partnership (PPP) investment in infrastructure from 1991 to 2015. Specifically, it examines factors behind the growth and declines in investment; it explores the use of financial instruments, the role of government support, multilateral development bank assistance and the procurement process; and it assesses renegotiations and cancelations, and the overall readiness of countries to implement PPPs.
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    Nose, Manabu.2014.
    Triggers of Contract Breach : Contract Design, Shocks, or Institutions
    This paper constructs a large contract-level data set to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. It gathers contractual dispute information from two data sets to form a universe of dispute cases - the World Bank PPI database and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Database of Treaty-based Investor-State Dispute Settlement Cases. It finds that less-democratic and resource-dependent governments are more likely to breach contracts, especially after large global shocks.
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    Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). 2014.
    World Investment and Political Risk - 2013
    In this report, investors’ perceptions and risk-mitigation strategies as they make decisions and plan for the future are examined. The World Bank PPI Database is used to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. It is found that investors continue to rank political risk as a key obstacle to investing in developing countries.
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