Since its creation, the PPI Database has been the main information source for trends in private participation in infrastructure in developing countries for a large number of publications. The list below contain publications that rely on data from the PPI Database. If you have any publications that you would like featured on this page, please email them to us at

  • Timilsina, Govinda R., Tooraj Jamasb, and Rabindra Nepal.2015.
    A Quarter Century Effort yet to Come of Age : A Survey of Power Sector Reforms in Developing Countries
    This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to compare pre- and post- Asian financial crisis investments.
    Show more
    ikoni, Edith, Martin Raiser, Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia, Joseph Kizito Mubiru, Roland N. Clarke, Lorena Vinuela, and Paul Procee.2017.
    Back to Planning : How to Close Brazil’s Infrastructure Gap in Times of Austerity
    Kikoni, Edith, Martin Raiser, Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia, Joseph Kizito Mubiru, Roland N. Clarke, Lorena Vinuela, and Paul Procee. 2017. This paper is a summary of a number of background papers analyzing the challenges of infrastructure in Brazil. The central argument is that Brazil can and will need to substantially increase the efficiency of infrastructure spending to close the gap. This would be possible with appropriate policies, institutions and regulation in place. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate public-private partnership investments in Brazil from 1990-2015.
    Show more
    The World Bank, and PPIAF.2015.
    Benchmarking public-private Partnerships Procurement 2015 - A pilot in 10 economies
    The Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) Procurement 2015 report aims to support and enhance the decisions that feed into policy-making by highlighting key aspects of a country’s PPP legal and regulatory framework. The World Bank PPI database is referred to in calculating the number of developing economies implementing PPPs between 2002 and 2013.
    Show more
    Marcelo Gordillo, Darwin, Jordan Z. Schwartz, Xavier Cledan Mandri-Perrott, and Ruth Schuyler House. 2017.
    Do Countries Learn from Experience in Infrastructure PPP ? PPP Practice and Contract Cancellation
    This paper examines whether countries do, indeed, learn from experience to improve the probability of success of public-private partnerships (PPPs) at the national level. The data is taken from the based on data from the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database. The results confirm that PPP experience reduces the likelihood of contract cancellation.
    Show more
    Marcelo Gordillo, Darwin, and Ruth Schuyler House.2016.
    Effects of Multilateral Support on Infrastructure PPP Contract Cancellation
    This paper examines the relationship between multilateral support and contract cancellation in long-term infrastructure public-private partnerships. The analysis draws on the World Bank PPI dataset and employs a multi-level econometric model. The results suggest that multilateral support has a positive effect on the survival of long-term public-private partnership infrastructure contracts.
    Show more
    Torres De Mastle, Clemencia, Javier Encinas, Edward Farquharson, and Edward Raymond Yescombe.2011.
    How to Engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets
    This book looks at emerging public-private partnership markets and discusses the nuances that emerge in the recommended paths when taking into account the diversity in different country contexts. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate private investment commitments in developing countries to new and existing infrastructure projects between 1990-2008.
    Show more
    Irwin, Timothy, Ellis J. Juan, and Michael Warlters.2005.
    Infrastructure Development: The Roles of the Public and Private Sectors - World Bank Group’s Approach to Supporting Investments in Infrastructure
    This note describes the World Bank Group’s approach to supporting investment in infrastructure. It uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate PPI commitments in developing countries from 1990-2004.
    Show more
    Hussain, Zakir, Mustafa (Editor), and Booz Allen Hamilton.2010.
    Investment in Air Transport Infrastructure: Guidance for Developing Private Participation
    This paper discusses the development of appropriate private sector participation to optimize the provision of air transport infrastructure (ATI). Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to discuss the trends in public-private partnership investments in ATI.
    Show more
    Leigland, James.2010.
    PPI in Poor Countries : How to Increase Private Participation in Infrastructure Management and Investment
    The paper explores what role private participation in infrastructure projects can play in improving infrastructure service provision in countries. Data from the World Bank PPI database is used to compare the contribution of private participation in infrastructure in IDA vs non-IDA countries in 1995–2008.
    Show more
    Klein, Michael U.2015.
    Public-Private Partnerships : Promise and Hype
    This paper provides perspectives on patterns of public-private partnerships in infrastructure across time and space. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to look at the trends in private investments in developing economies from 1990-2015.
    Show more
    Lawrence, Martha B., and Gerald Paul Ollivier.2014.
    Private Capital for Railway Development
    The paper discusses the steps China could take to attract private capital for railway development. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to estimate public-private partnership investment in railways in China from 1990 and 2012.
    Show more
    Baietti, Aldo.2001.
    This report reviews the models adopted in East Asia to promote private participation in infrastructure (PPI). Based on data from the World Bank PPI database (1994-1999), it analyzes the impact of the financial crisis on investment trends by private sponsors and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of PPI models in six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam.
    Show more
    Oguah, Samuel Kwesi Ewuah, and Pedro E. Sanchez2015.
    Private Sector Participation in Transmission Systems: Making It Work
    The principal argument of the paper is that in the presence of the right policies and investment climate, private sector participation in transmission systems can improve the security, reliability, and quality of supply in a cost-effective manner. It uses data from the World Bank PPI database to analyze the distribution of private sector investments in transmission infrastructure by country income levels between 1994–2013.
    Show more
    Kikeri, Sunita, and Aishetu Kolo.2005.
    Privatization : Trends and Recent Developments
    An update of the World Bank Group’s PPI Database shows that in 2008 privatizations in developing countries fell to US$38 billion, down 70 percent from 2007. Privatization slowed as the global financial crisis took hold and as political difficulties continued. At the same time, the wave of nationalizations expected in the wake of the crisis did not occur. Instead, preliminary results for 2009 show a slight uptick in privatization value as markets began to stabilize— and as growing budget deficits led to new pressures for privatization.
    Show more
    Marin, Philippe.2009.
    Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Water Utilities : A Review of Experiences in Developing Countries
    This study reviews the overall spread of urban water public-private partnerships during the past 15 years, using the World Bank PPI database, and seeks to respond to the questions of whether and how they have helped to improve services and to expand access for the populations concerned.
    Show more
    Sharp, Richard G.2005.
    Results of Railway Privatization in Latin America
    This paper reviews the performance of railway concessions in Latin America over the period extending from the initial Argentina concessions in 1991-1993 through 2004. The cumulative investments made in different regions is this time period is estimated based on the data in the World Bank PPI database. The results of the overall assessment of rail concessioning in Latin America have been positive, particularly for freight railways.
    Show more
    Andres, Luis Alberto, Ulf Gerrit Narloch, Stephane Straub, Marianne Fay,Charles James Edward Fox, and Michael Alan Slawson.2017.
    Rethinking Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean : Spending Better to Achieve More
    Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC) infrastructure does not correspond to the aspirations of its growing middle class. The authors propose focusing on closing the "service gap" instead of the "infrastructure gap", by ensuring that spending (particularly of scarce public resources) is well targeted and efficient. Data on investments with private participation in the LAC region were derived from the World Bank PPI Database
    Show more
    Vagliasindi, Maria. 2013.
    Revisiting Public-Private Partnerships in the Power Sector
    This paper reviews the impact of the recent financial crisis on public-private partnership investment compared with what happened in earlier financial crises, largely based on information from the World Bank PPI database, on 105 developing countries, covering all the regions, from 1993 to 2008 .
    Show more
    Andres, Luis, Gonzalo Araya, and Jordan Schwartz.2013.
    The Effects of Country Risk and Conflict on Infrastructure PPPs
    Through an empirical analysis of the relationship between private participation in infrastructure and country risk, the paper shows that country risk ratings are a reliable predictor of infrastructure investment levels in developing countries. The paper utilizes data from the World Bank PPI database, regarding 130 developing countries from 1990 until 2010.
    Show more
    Grishin, Vadim Nikolaevich, and Tom Walton. 2016.
    The Private Provision of Infrastructure : Opportunities for Emerging Markets
    The traditional role of financing and operating infrastructure projects has been shaken up in recent decades by the emergence of public-private partnerships. All investments trends in different sectors and regions in this paper are determined based on the World Bank PPI database. Designed and implemented correctly, these partnerships can bring greater efficiency and sustainability to the provision of public services such as water and sanitation, electric power, transport, and telecommunications.
    Show more
    Ruiz-Nuñez, Fernanda, and Clive Harris.2016.
    The State of PPPs: Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets & Developing Economies 1991-2015
    This report uses data from the World Bank PPI Database to analyze broad trends of public-private partnership (PPP) investment in infrastructure from 1991 to 2015. Specifically, it examines factors behind the growth and declines in investment; it explores the use of financial instruments, the role of government support, multilateral development bank assistance and the procurement process; and it assesses renegotiations and cancelations, and the overall readiness of countries to implement PPPs.
    Show more
    Nose, Manabu.2014.
    Triggers of Contract Breach : Contract Design, Shocks, or Institutions
    This paper constructs a large contract-level data set to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. It gathers contractual dispute information from two data sets to form a universe of dispute cases - the World Bank PPI database and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Database of Treaty-based Investor-State Dispute Settlement Cases. It finds that less-democratic and resource-dependent governments are more likely to breach contracts, especially after large global shocks.
    Show more
    Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). 2014.
    World Investment and Political Risk - 2013
    In this report, investors’ perceptions and risk-mitigation strategies as they make decisions and plan for the future are examined. The World Bank PPI Database is used to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. It is found that investors continue to rank political risk as a key obstacle to investing in developing countries.
    Show more

Disclaimer: Links to third party publications are made for the convenience of the users and do not imply endorsement by the World Bank Group. The World Bank Group is not responsible for the content of any third party website or any link contained in a linked site. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank, its Board of Executive Directors, or the governments they represent.