Publications

Since its creation, the PPI Database has been the main information source for trends in private participation in infrastructure in developing countries for a large number of publications. The list below contain publications that rely on data from the PPI Database. If you have any publications that you would like featured on this page, please email them to us at dsaha1@worldbank.org
publication

Global

Case Studies on Leveraging Private Investment for Infrastructure
Author: Biousse, Kim and Kaori Miyamoto. 2014.
Source: Development Co-operation Directorate Working Paper, OECD Publishing.
 
This paper provides an overview of infrastructure projects with private investment in infrastructure based on data extracted from the World Bank PPI database. The data analysis by number of infrastructure projects with private participation shows that two thirds of projects are supported by multilateral development banks only. In terms of income levels, there is little support to projects in low-income countries, but the support is more or less equally divided between lower middle income countries and upper middle income countries.
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Determinants of PPP in Infrastructure in Developing Economies
Author: Sharma, Chandan. 2012.
Source: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy 6 (2): 149–66.
 
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that determine Public Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure by using the World Bank PPI database for the period 1990-2008. The results suggest that large size and relatively higher income markets attract more PPP projects. The empirical evidence also suggests that macroeconomic stability, quality of regulation and governance are important factors in determining PPP in the infrastructure.
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Drivers of Conflict in Developing Country Infrastructure Projects: Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors
Author: Boudet Hilary Schaffer, Jayasundera Dilanka Chinthana, and Davis Jennifer. 2011.
Source: Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (7): 498–511.
 
The principal objective of this research is to identify combinations of country, project, and stakeholder factors that are associated with the emergence of legal and political conflict within natural gas and oil pipeline projects and water supply concessions and leases. The analysis includes data from 26 infrastructure projects spanning 31 countries. The water-supply sector cases were drawn from two databases - the World Bank’s PPI database and the Project Finance International project database. Overall, the study findings suggest that several factors associated with conflict in infrastructure projects can be minimized with careful project design.
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Institutional and Political Determinants of Private Participation in Infrastructure
Author: Moszoro, Marian, Gonzalo Araya, Fernanda Ruiz-Nuñez and Jordan Schwartz. 2014
Source: Discussion Paper No 2014-15. Prepared for the Roundtable: Public Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure: Renegotiations, how to approach them and economic outcomes. 27-28 October 2014, George Mason University, Washington D.C., USA
 
The paper aims to assess the determinants of private financing of infrastructure in emerging markets and developing economies. The authors assemble a large panel of project-level technical and financial data (using the World Bank PPI database) and country-level economic, institutional, political, and governance variables to. The study shows that upstream “enabling” institutions, policies, and regulations and sector economics need to be addressed simultaneously to facilitate private infrastructure investment financing.
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International Organizations and Political Risk–The Case of Multilateral Development Banks in Infrastructure Projects
Author: Jandhyala, Srividya. 2016
Source:
 
This paper examines how Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) partner with firms to lower the likelihood of project distress caused by ex-post recontracting between States and firms. Analysis is conducted using a sample of 2117 infrastructure projects from the World Bank PPI database,  which include investments made from 1995 to 2009 and cover 45 developing countries. Empirical results provide evidence that private investment projects with MDB participation are less likely to be distressed.
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Involving the Private Sector and PPPs in Financing Public Investments: Some Opportunities and Challenges
Author: Ahmad, Ehtisham, Amar Bhattacharya, Annalisa Vinella, and Kezhou Xiao. 2014.
Source: LSE Asia Research Centre Working Paper 87.
 
The paper stresses on the issue of accurate information on the generation of sub-national liabilities, as it is of critical importance both to generate adequate signals for investment but also for the macroeconomic management. Using the World Bank PPI database, it describes some general trends in involving the private sector in public projects. It then looks narrowly on key features of public–private partnerships and asymmetric information and finally, draws some policy conclusions.
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Openness and the Politics of Potable Water
Author: Rudra, Nita, Nathan M. Jensen, and Nita Rudra. 2011.
Source: Comparative Political Studies 44 (6): 771–803.
 
The paper focuses on the interplay of trade and politics—both international and domestic—as the primary driving forces behind improvements in (or constraints to) water access.  Empirical evidence from 77 developing countries and case studies of Vietnam and India provide support for this hypothesis. Water privatization data was drawn from the World Bank PPI database to test the hypothesis that privatization exacerbated inequality and prevented water access.
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Privatization, Governance, and Survival: MNE Investments in Private Participation Projects in Emerging Economies
Author: Jiang, Yi, Mike W. Peng, Xiaohua Yang, and Canan C. Mutlu. 2015.
Source: Journal of World Business 50 (2): 294–301.
 
This paper integrates transaction cost economics, bargaining model, and the institution-based view, to examine the bargaining process between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and host governments. Leveraging data from 113 emerging economies from the World Bank PPI database, the paper finds that the survival of MNE investments is dependent on the bargaining outcomes between MNE and host governments around investment location, governance structure, and host governments’ ownership of the private participation projects.
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The Global Production of Transportation Public–Private Partnerships
Author: Siemiatycki, Matti. 2013.
Source: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (4): 1254–72.
 
Two large datasets were used to examine the global geography of roads, bridges, railways, urban transit, seaport and airport public–private partnerships - the Major Project Survey and the World Bank PPI database. The results show that the production of public–private partnerships worldwide has been dominated by a relatively small number of highly globalized construction contractors, engineering firms, financiers, accountancies and consultants from developed countries, who have focused their activities in a narrow set of regions.
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The Impact of Corruption on Entry Strategy: Evidence from Telecommunication Projects in Emerging Economies
Author: Uhlenbruck, Klaus, Peter Rodriguez, Jonathan Doh, and Lorraine Eden. 2006.
Source: Organization Science 17 (3): 402–14.
 
This paper examines how firms adjust their strategy for entering foreign markets in corrupt environments and how different types of corruption affect firms’ choices. Using data from the World Bank’s PPI Database on 220 telecommunications development projects in 64 emerging economies, the results show that firms adapt to the pressures of corruption via short-term contracting and entry into joint ventures.
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The Influence of the Institutional Environment on Public–private Partnership Transport Project
Author: Pérez-D’Oleo, J., C. Castro, I. Herraiz, and S. Carpintero. 2015.
Source: Urban Transport XXI, 146: 399–410
 
The objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of institutional environment on the investment carried out through public–private partnerships in middle-and-low income countries for the period 1996–2011. This paper carries out a statistical analysis of the institutional environment indicators, and data of public–private investment in transport, for 80 countries, taken from the World Bank PPI database.
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Transaction Costs in Public–Private Partnerships: Weight of Institutional Quality in Developing Countries
Author: Baker, Nicole Ballouz. 2016
Source: Public Performance & Management Review 40 (2): 431–55.
 
This paper explores the impact of institutional quality on the expansion of public–private partnership (PPP) markets in developing countries. Panel regressions, on a sample of 83 developing countries for the period 1999– 2011 from the World Bank PPI database, provide evidence on the positive impact of judicial independence and regulatory quality in attracting private investors to PPP markets regardless of the degree of uncertainty in the exchange environment.
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Urbanization and Demand for Water and Sanitation Services: An Analysis on Cross-Region Investment Requirements
Author: Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, and Debashis Chakraborty. 2016.
Source: MPRA Paper. University Library of Munich, Germany.
 
Given the poor access to water supply and sanitation across several regions, the present analysis attempts to estimate the demand for investment in this sector. The empirical estimates reveals that to achieve universal access to improved WSS by 2019, the stock of investment in water services should reach US $2,240 billion at 2005 prices in 2019. The present quantum and distribution of private investment in the water services sector across the sub-regions was based on the World Bank PPI database.
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East Asia and Pacific

An Empirical Analysis of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Projects in the Renewable Energy Sector of China
Author: Chen, Chuan, Qi Wang, and Rui Ying Fang. 2014.
Source: Advanced Materials Research 869–870: 488–94.
 
Aiming at a better understanding of the activities and trends of the private sector in the renewable energy sector of China, this study retrieved project level data from the World Bank PPI database, and examined the data from various dimensions, such as investment size, PPI type, technology, and geographical distribution. The results confirmed the high installation cost of renewable energy projects and highlighted the importance of government subsidies at present and technological advances in the long run to support the development of renewable energy.
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Changes in Development Finance in Asia: Trends, Challenges, and Policy Implications
Author: Nishizawa, Toshiro. 2011.
Source: Asian Economic Policy Review 6 (2): 225–44.
 
New trends and challenges have been identified in areas such as the transformation of development aid, public–private partnerships (PPPs), and green finance. The paper draws on the World Bank PPI database to provide information on the PPP infrastructure finance trends. The paper argues that for various financial resources to bring about tangible benefits, policymakers should take account of complementarities and synergies among the full range of available financial resources.
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Critical Factors and Risk Allocation for PPP Policy: Comparison between HSR and General Infrastructure Projects
Author: Chou, Jui-Sheng, H. Ping Tserng, Chieh Lin, and Chun-Pin Yeh. 2012.
Source: Transport Policy 22 (July): 36–48.
 
This study compared the use of public–private partnership (PPP) policy between high speed rail  projects and general infrastructure projects. Based on extensive literature reviews, drivers for adopting PPP strategy, critical success factors, and preferred risk factor allocation were collected to design a structural questionnaire for professionals in Taiwan and to elicit their PPP project experience. The World Bank PPI database was referred to in estimating the number of countries inviting private participation in infrastructure projects.
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Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Asia-Pacific: The 2011 Infrascope
Author: The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2011.
Source:
 
This comprises a summary and analysis of a benchmark index and learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in the Asia-Pacific region to carry out sustainable public-private infrastructure partnerships. Data for the quantitative indicators are drawn from the World Bank PPI database, and from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Risk Briefing service.
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Private Participation in Infrastructure Project and Its Impact on the Project Cost
Author: Deng, Zhongqi, Shunfeng Song, and Yongjun Chen. 2016
Source: China Economic Review 39 (July): 63–76.
 
Very little is known about whether or not public–private partnerships (PPPs) are more efficient than pure-public or pure-private modes. Using data from the World Bank PPI database and “China Statistical Yearbook”, this paper improves the understanding of public–private capital structures, provides some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence that private participation affects PPPs cost through the knowledge-transfer effect and the cost-increase effect.
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Public–private Partnerships for Water in Asia: A Review of Two Decades of Experience
Author: Jensen, Olivia. 2017.
Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 33 (1): 4–30.
 
This article reviews the development of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in water services in Asia over the last two decades and situates the Asian experience within the wider global context. Through a comparative analysis of PPP data from two different sources (the World Bank PPI Database and the Private Sector Participation in Water Database maintained by Global Water Intelligence), the article highlights the critical issue of how ‘private’ is defined in understanding the extent of PPP in Asia, due to the important role played by enterprises under mixed public and private ownership.
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The Pitfalls of Water Privatization: Failure and Reform in Malaysia
Author: Tan, Jeff. 2012.
Source: World Development 40 (12): 2552–63.
 
This paper examines why private participation in infrastructure in water continues to be promoted despite poor results in developing countries. The global evidence of capital investment across regions and sectors is drawn from the World Bank PPI Database for the period 1991–2009. It argues that the main characteristics of infrastructure discourage private investment and necessitate state subsidies which dilute private risks and incentives and facilitate rent-seeking.
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Europe and Central Asia

Criteria for the Management Partnership Model in Croatian Seaports
Author: Hadžić, Ana Perić, Alen Jugović, and Marko Perić. 2015.
Source: Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 28 (1): 226–42.
 
The aim of this paper is to define the relevant criteria for the evaluation of public–private partnerships for the implementation of the management partnership model in Croatian seaports.  The World Bank PPI database is used to assess private sector participation in ports in the last 20 years in developing countries. The results provide point out that technical-technological and organizational development are the key criteria for a successful partnership model.
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Infrastructure Investments in Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA)
Author: Kravets, Olga. 2013.
Source: Eastern Partnership Technical Assistance Trust Fund (EIB) Working Papers 2013/01
 
The paper is aimed to spotlight the key infrastructure investments issues and trends in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It takes stock and look at the evolution and composition of infrastructure finance in ECA, main funding institutions and international financial institutions that work in the region. Investment volumes in the region are estimated based on the available data from World Bank PPI database and other multilateral development banks.
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Local Public-Services Provision under Public–Private Partnerships: Contractual Design and Contracting Parties Incentives
Author: Athias, Laure. 2013.
Source: Local Government Studies 39 (3): 312–31.
 
The paper investigates the effects of demand risk allocation on the accountability of procuring authorities regarding consumers changing demand, as well as on the cost-reducing effort incentives of the private public-service provider. It shows that contracts in which the private provider bears demand risk motivate more the public authority from responding to customer needs. Data from the World Bank PPI database was used to analyze which type of contractual form was predominantly used in LAC between 1990 and 2000.
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Political Institutions of Electricity Regulation: The Case of Turkey
Author: Durakoğlu, S. Mustafa. 2011.
Source: Energy Policy 39 (9): 5578–87.
 
This paper adopts an institutional approach and attempts to identify the political endowments of Turkey in order to further analyze whether the market reforms succeeded in bringing about sufficient checks to cure the institutional problems. It uses the World Bank PPI database to analyze the private investment flows in electricity in the different regions. The results show that the current regulatory structure, especially government–regulator relations, yet fails to meet good regulatory governance criteria.
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Project Finance and Projects in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries
Author: Kripa, Ermela, and Halit Xhafa. 2013.
Source: European Academic Research 1 (2): 169–84.
 
The purpose of the study is to show the importance of using project finance in infrastructure investments in developing countries. The paper focusses on only the energy sector and uses data of some projects in central and eastern European countries from the World Bank PPI database. It finds that the propensity of firms to use project finance is high and statistically significant when large sunk investments have state owned primary buyer firms in risky countries.
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Public-Private Partnership Experience in the International Arena: Case of Turkey
Author: Gurgun Asli Pelin, and Touran Ali. 2014.
Source: Journal of Management in Engineering 30 (6): 4014029.
 
An intensive public-private partnership (PPP) literature survey has been made to present the common success factors, risks, limitations, and challenges in Europe, the U.K., China, U.S., and Turkey as well as understanding the differences in the implementations. The World Bank PPI database was used to assess in which countries, within the Europe and the Central Asia region, are investments concentrated. The overall analysis pointed to the following major factors for successful PPP projects -  a viable economic environment, proper contractual arrangements for appropriate risk allocation, well-established legal basis, public support, transparency, and a central unit to standardize the procedures.
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Role of Public Private Partnership in Infrastructure Development (Focus on Albania)
Author: Kripa, Ermela. 2013.
Source: Proceedings in ARSA - Advanced Research in Scientific Areas, no. 1 (December).
 
The aim of this paper is to present the determinants of public–private partnership (PPP) influencing infrastructure development in Albania. The study conducts a comparative analysis of the countries in the region using data from the World Bank PPI database. The results show that macroeconomic stability and size of markets are important determinants of PPPs in infrastructure.
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Turkish experience with public private partnerships in infrastructure: Opportunities and challenges
Author: Uğur Emek, 2015
Source: Utilities Policy, Volume 37, 120-129
 
This study attempts to explore whether PPPs would genuinely bring efficiency gains in the delivery of public services or pose new challenges for the performance of public administration from a broader economic perspective, with a focus on Turkey which has a rich history of PPPs. The World Bank PPI database is used to compare PPP projects in Turkey with PPP projects in Europe and Central Asia and other major PPP players like Brazil and India
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Latin America and Caribbean

Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: The 2014 Infrascope
Author: The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2014.
Source:
 
This report is an informational tool and benchmarking index that assesses the capacity of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to carry out sustainable public-private partnerships in infrastructure. The indicator on quality of transport, water and electricity projects is based on data on distress and failure rates of concession projects in these sectors over the past 10 years, drawn from the World Bank PPI database and the observations by researchers in-country. The analysis and content of this index covers the period from May 2014 to August 2014.
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Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in the Developing World: Lessons from Recent Experience
Author: Trebilcock, Michael, and Michael Rosenstock. 2015.
Source: The Journal of Development Studies 51 (4): 335–54.
 
This paper reviews the benefits and drawbacks of public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the experience to date, focusing in particular on developing economies. It uses the PPI database to analyze the pattern of PPP activity in the developing world. The paper argues that institutional capacity is a key determinant of PPP success and in mitigating potentially welfare-reducing contract renegotiations evident in the Latin American experience.
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Privatization, Institutional Reform, and Performance in the Latin American Electricity Sector
Author: Balza, Lenin, Raúl Alberto Jiménez, Mercado Díaz, and Jorge Enrique. 2013
Source: Technical Notes. Inter-American Development Bank.
 
This paper explores the relationship between private sector participation, institutional reform, and performance of the electricity sector in 18 Latin American countries over the last four decades, using the World Bank PPI database.  The results suggest that privatization is robustly associated with improvements in quality and efficiency, but not with accessibility to the service, and, that  regulatory quality is strongly associated with better performance in terms of both quality and accessibility.
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Revisiting the Obsolescing Bargain in Post-Crisis Argentina: Investor Portfolios and Regulatory Outcomes
Author: Post, Alison, and María Victoria Murillo. 2012.
Source: Trabajo Presentado En El Seminario Del Departamento de Ciencia Política, UTDT, Buenos Aires.
 
The paper examines variation in the conditions for and longevity of private investment in thirty electricity and water utilities in Argentina after a deep crisis that triggered ‘obsolescing bargains.’ It argues that investors’ prior choices regarding portfolio structure affect their post-crisis experiences. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate the number of privatized state enterprises in the two sectors in developing countries in the 1990s.
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Middle East and North America

Public-Private Participation in Energy Infrastructure in Middle East and North African Countries: The Role of Institutions for Renewable Energy Sources Diffusion
Author: Somma, Ernesto, and Alessandro Rubino. 2016.
Source: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy; Mersin 6 (3)
 
Using the World Bank PPI database, the paper evaluates the performance and trends of public–private partnership (PPP) in energy infrastructures at the global level and in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. It finds that the PPP growth trend traced a steady increase since the start of privatization and liberalization process that took place in most OECD countries in the 90s and peaked in 2012.
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South Asia

A Review on Cancellation of PPP Projects in India
Author: Tiwari, Sanjay, and Amit Ashish. 2013.
Source: International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 2 (6): 202–213.
 
This paper reviews the cancellation of privately financed infrastructure projects in the energy, telecom, water and sewerage and transport sectors in India during 1990- 2011. The analysis is based on the data obtained from World Bank PPI database, looking specifically at the investments made in India and cases of pre-closed projects. The study compares the percentage of cancellation (i.e. 1.32%) of private projects in India to its neighboring countries and also helps identify the most critical reasons that lead to cancellations in the different sectors.
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Are Private Investments Serving the Poor in India?
Author: Mukhopadhyay, Chandrima. 2011.
Source: Journal of Infrastructure Development 3 (1): 39–63.
 
This article investigates whether the central government has been successful in directing public-private partnerships (PPPs) towards the poor regions in India. The study uses data from the World Bank PPI database to determine private investment stocks in multiple sectors across various regions in terms of an investment index. This study shows that PPPs in India contributes towards the process of uneven development.
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Credit Rating Methods for Public–Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Asia
Author: Tsunoda, Jiro, Ramraj Pai, and Pawan Agrawal. 2014.
Source: South Asia Operational Knowledge Working Paper Series, No. 3, Asian Development Bank
 
This paper explains the key rating factors used by domestic credit rating agencies in the final rating determination and suggests methodologies that can help reduce procedural bottlenecks and boost credit availability in South Asia. The World PPI database is used to provide supporting data for the section on constraints faced by public-private partnership projects.
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Growth And Infrastructure Investment In India: Achievements, Challenges, And Opportunities
Author: Mishra, Aswini Kumar, Kunapareddy Narendra, and Bibhu Prasad Kar. 2013.
Source: Economic Annals 58 (196): 51–70.
 
The paper analyses the recent scenario of infrastructure investment in India. It conducts an overview of the trends in infrastructure investment from the 10th Five Year Plan onwards, and tries to examine the linkage between infrastructure and economic growth. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine the private sector investment commitments to infrastructure projects in India, Pakistan and other South Asian countries.
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Malnutrition, Child Health, and Water Quality: Is There a Role for Private Sector Participation in South Asia?
Author: Kosec, Katrina. 2012.
Source: CESifo Economic Studies 58 (2): 450–70.
 
This article discusses the potential of private sector participation (PSP) to improve the urban water supply in South Asia. Empirical evidence from urban Africa (in part using data from the World Bank PPI database) is presented to show PSP in water is associated with a lower incidence of diarrheal disease and higher rates of access to piped water among young children.
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Sub-Saharan Africa

Are Public–private Partnerships (PPPs) the Answer to Africa’s Infrastructure Needs?
Author: Loxley, John. 2013.
Source: Review of African Political Economy 40 (137): 485–95.
 
This paper explores the nature of public private partnerships (PPPs), the extent of their use and their location by sector in Africa using data from World Bank PPI database. It also examines the arguments advanced for the promotion of PPPs and looks critically at them. It concludes that great caution should be exercised in the use of PPPs.
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Building Infrastructure through Public Private Partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from South Africa
Author: Sanni, Afeez Olalekan, and Maizon Hashim. 2014.
Source: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3rd Cyprus International Conference on Educational Research, CY-ICER 2014
 
This study is aimed at identifying the challenges in the delivery of social and economic infrastructures in the region through public private partnership procurement arrangements. It reviews current practices of public private partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa (based on past studies, reports and relevant policy documents) while using South Africa implementation process as case study for the region. The lack of capacity and policy direction, high participation costs, delays in negotiation and poor performance are among the challenges identified. The World Bank PPI database was used to measure the number and investments of private projects in developing countries, 1990 – 2011.
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Evaluation of the Demonstration Effect of IFC’s Involvement in Infrastructure in Africa
Author: Castalia Strategic Advisors. 2011.
Source:
 
This paper by Castalia evaluates whether and how International Finance Corporation's (IFC) activities in infrastructure in Africa have generated demonstration effects. The project database for each focus country was compiled from the World Bank PPI database and information from the IFC’s records to create an initial list of PPI activities from 1993 to 2009.
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Infrastructure Finance Uncertainty and Change in Sub-Saharan Africa
Author: PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC). 2010
Source:
 
The future of infrastructure finance in Africa is at a crossroads. Traditional finance models have faltered in the wake of the global economic crisis, compounded by significant political and systemic obstacles that could derail a nascent recovery. The market for infrastructure finance has changed and will continue to evolve. This paper explores the recent gains that Africa has made to bridge the infrastructure gap, the challenges facing stakeholders and the outlook for the future. It uses the World Bank PPI database to analyze the trends in infrastructure spending.
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Infrastructure Financing Trends in Africa 2013
Author: The Infrastructure Consortium for Africa Secretariat. 2014.
Source:
 
The ICA Annual Report 2013 shows that progress is being made in channeling more finance from regional actors, as well as international institutions, to strategic and sustainable projects. The report uses data from 2009-2013 in the World Bank PPI database to analyze the investment trends in Africa.
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Investment Power in Africa: Where from and Where to?
Author: Eberhard, Anton, and Katharine Gratwick. 2013.
Source: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 14 (1): 39–46.
 
The paper uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate the amount of private investments that have been recorded between 1990 and 2011. It details a number of success stories, including Kenya, South Africa and (potentially) Nigeria, whose policy innovations have replication potential in other Sub-Saharan African countries and beyond.
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Relationship between state institutions and private participation in infrastructure in developing economies: A case study approach
Author: Regan, M., Jim Smith and Peter Love. 2013.
Source: Paper presented at RICS Cobra 2013, New Delhi, India.
 
This paper examines the relationship between institutional development and the delivery of Public-Private Infrastructure projects using case studies in three developing and transition economies in Africa: Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria. The case studies were selected from a wider study of developing nations using development classifications and data prepared by the World Economic Forum from 2005-2010, and the World Bank PPI database for the same period.
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Water

(Un)bundling Infrastructure Procurement: Evidence from Water Supply and Sewage Projects
Author: Estache, Antonio, and Atsushi Iimi. 2011.
Source: Utilities Policy 19 (2): 104–14.
 
Using data on public procurement auctions for water and sewage projects in developing countries, this paper shows that bidder entry is crucially endogenous, especially because it is determined by the auctioneer's bundling and unbundling strategy. Using the World Bank PPI database, it find that the top 10 percent largest firms are awarded about half of total infrastructure public–private partnership contracts.
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Drivers of Conflict in Developing Country Infrastructure Projects: Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors
Author: Boudet Hilary Schaffer, Jayasundera Dilanka Chinthana, and Davis Jennifer. 2011.
Source: Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (7): 498–511.
 
The principal objective of this research is to identify combinations of country, project, and stakeholder factors that are associated with the emergence of legal and political conflict within natural gas and oil pipeline projects and water supply concessions and leases. The analysis includes data from 26 infrastructure projects spanning 31 countries. The water-supply sector cases were drawn from two databases - the World Bank’s PPI database and the Project Finance International project database. Overall, the study findings suggest that several factors associated with conflict in infrastructure projects can be minimized with careful project design.
Read more ( KB)
Financing Water Quality Management
Author: Kauffmann, Céline. 2011.
Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 27 (1): 83–99.
 
This paper examines the recent trends in the development of wastewater infrastructure. It then discusses the investment needs and reviews the potential sources of funding, before turning to recent trends in private-sector participation in water and wastewater treatment infrastructure and the framework conditions to make this participation work in the public interest. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine China's private participation in the wastewater sector.
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Malnutrition, Child Health, and Water Quality: Is There a Role for Private Sector Participation in South Asia?
Author: Kosec, Katrina. 2012.
Source: CESifo Economic Studies 58 (2): 450–70.
 
This article discusses the potential of private sector participation (PSP) to improve the urban water supply in South Asia. Empirical evidence from urban Africa (in part using data from the World Bank PPI database) is presented to show PSP in water is associated with a lower incidence of diarrheal disease and higher rates of access to piped water among young children.
Read more ( KB)
Neoliberal Versus Postneoliberal Water: Geographies of Privatization and Resistance
Author: Bakker, Karen. 2013.
Source: Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103 (2): 253–60.
 
This article documents the increasingly variegated pattern of urban water supply privatization since the 1990s. The analysis cautions against sweeping generalizations of post neoliberalism often associated with putative alternatives to private water supply. Private sector involvement within water supply, in terms of numbers and investments, was estimated from the World Bank PPI database.
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Openness and the Politics of Potable Water
Author: Rudra, Nita, Nathan M. Jensen, and Nita Rudra. 2011.
Source: Comparative Political Studies 44 (6): 771–803.
 
The paper focuses on the interplay of trade and politics—both international and domestic—as the primary driving forces behind improvements in (or constraints to) water access.  Empirical evidence from 77 developing countries and case studies of Vietnam and India provide support for this hypothesis. Water privatization data was drawn from the World Bank PPI database to test the hypothesis that privatization exacerbated inequality and prevented water access.
Read more ( KB)
Public–private Partnerships for Water in Asia: A Review of Two Decades of Experience
Author: Jensen, Olivia. 2017.
Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 33 (1): 4–30.
 
This article reviews the development of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in water services in Asia over the last two decades and situates the Asian experience within the wider global context. Through a comparative analysis of PPP data from two different sources (the World Bank PPI Database and the Private Sector Participation in Water Database maintained by Global Water Intelligence), the article highlights the critical issue of how ‘private’ is defined in understanding the extent of PPP in Asia, due to the important role played by enterprises under mixed public and private ownership.
Read more ( KB)
Revisiting the Obsolescing Bargain in Post-Crisis Argentina: Investor Portfolios and Regulatory Outcomes
Author: Post, Alison, and María Victoria Murillo. 2012.
Source: "Trabajo Presentado En El Seminario Del Departamento de Ciencia Política, UTDT, Buenos Aires.
 
The paper examines variation in the conditions for and longevity of private investment in thirty electricity and water utilities in Argentina after a deep crisis that triggered ‘obsolescing bargains.’ It argues that investors’ prior choices regarding portfolio structure affect their post-crisis experiences. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate the number of privatized state enterprises in the two sectors in developing countries in the 1990s.
Read more ( KB)
The Pitfalls of Water Privatization: Failure and Reform in Malaysia
Author: Tan, Jeff. 2012.
Source: World Development 40 (12): 2552–63.
 
This paper examines why private participation in infrastructure in water continues to be promoted despite poor results in developing countries. The global evidence of capital investment across regions and sectors is drawn from the World Bank PPI Database for the period 1991–2009. It argues that the main characteristics of infrastructure discourage private investment and necessitate state subsidies which dilute private risks and incentives and facilitate rent-seeking.
Read more ( KB)
Urbanization and Demand for Water and Sanitation Services: An Analysis on Cross-Region Investment Requirements
Author: Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, and Debashis Chakraborty. 2016.
Source: MPRA Paper. University Library of Munich, Germany.
 
Given the poor access to water supply and sanitation across several regions, the present analysis attempts to estimate the demand for investment in this sector. The empirical estimates reveals that to achieve universal access to improved WSS by 2019, the stock of investment in water services should reach US $2,240 billion at 2005 prices in 2019. The present quantum and distribution of private investment in the water services sector across the sub-regions was based on the World Bank PPI database.
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Energy

An Empirical Analysis of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Projects in the Renewable Energy Sector of China
Author: Chen, Chuan, Qi Wang, and Rui Ying Fang. 2014.
Source: Advanced Materials Research 869–870: 488–94.
 
Aiming at a better understanding of the activities and trends of the private sector in the renewable energy sector of China, this study retrieved project level data from the World Bank PPI database, and examined the data from various dimensions, such as investment size, PPI type, technology, and geographical distribution. The results confirmed the high installation cost of renewable energy projects and highlighted the importance of government subsidies at present and technological advances in the long run to support the development of renewable energy.
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Informing the Financing of Universal Energy Access: An Assessment of Current Financial Flows
Author: Bazilian, Morgan, Patrick Nussbaumer, Giorgio Gualberti, Erik Haites, Michael Levi, Judy Siegel, Daniel M. Kammen, and Joergen Fenhann. 2011.
Source: The Electricity Journal 24 (7): 57–82.
 
The authors focus on the timeframe 2000–2009, and utilize data from project level databases (Official Development Finance and the World Bank PPI database) and data from National Accounts (Gross Fixed Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investments).  A brief analysis of the current macro financial flows in the electricity and gas distribution sectors in developing countries suggests that the ‘funding gap’ is, at minimum, a factor of five less than that required for universal household access to electricity.
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Investment Power in Africa: Where from and Where to?
Author: Eberhard, Anton, and Katharine Gratwick. 2013.
Source: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 14 (1): 39–46.
 
The paper uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate the amount of private investments that have been recorded between 1990 and 2011. It details a number of success stories, including Kenya, South Africa and (potentially) Nigeria, whose policy innovations have replication potential in other Sub-Saharan African countries and beyond.
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Political Institutions of Electricity Regulation: The Case of Turkey
Author: Durakoğlu, S. Mustafa. 2011.
Source: Energy Policy 39 (9): 5578–87.
 
This paper adopts an institutional approach and attempts to identify the political endowments of Turkey in order to further analyze whether the market reforms succeeded in bringing about sufficient checks to cure the institutional problems. It uses the World Bank PPI database to analyze the private investment flows in electricity in the different regions. The results show that the current regulatory structure, especially government–regulator relations, yet fails to meet good regulatory governance criteria.
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Privatization, Institutional Reform, and Performance in the Latin American Electricity Sector
Author: Balza, Lenin, Raúl Alberto Jiménez, Mercado Díaz, and Jorge Enrique. 2013
Source: Technical Notes. Inter-American Development Bank.
 
This paper explores the relationship between private sector participation, institutional reform, and performance of the electricity sector in 18 Latin American countries over the last four decades, using the World Bank PPI database.  The results suggest that privatization is robustly associated with improvements in quality and efficiency, but not with accessibility to the service, and, that  regulatory quality is strongly associated with better performance in terms of both quality and accessibility.
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Project Finance and Projects in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries
Author: Kripa, Ermela, and Halit Xhafa. 2013.
Source: European Academic Research 1 (2): 169–84.
 
The purpose of the study is to show the importance of using project finance in infrastructure investments in developing countries. The paper focusses on only the energy sector and uses data of some projects in central and eastern European countries from the World Bank PPI database. It finds that the propensity of firms to use project finance is high and statistically significant when large sunk investments have state owned primary buyer firms in risky countries.
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Public-Private Participation in Energy Infrastructure in Middle East and North African Countries: The Role of Institutions for Renewable Energy Sources Diffusion
Author: Somma, Ernesto, and Alessandro Rubino. 2016.
Source: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy; Mersin 6 (3)
 
Using the World Bank PPI database, the paper evaluates the performance and trends of public–private partnership (PPP) in energy infrastructures at the global level and in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. It finds that the PPP growth trend traced a steady increase since the start of privatization and liberalization process that took place in most OECD countries in the 90s and peaked in 2012.
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Revisiting the Obsolescing Bargain in Post-Crisis Argentina: Investor Portfolios and Regulatory Outcomes
Author: Post, Alison, and María Victoria Murillo. 2012.
Source: Trabajo Presentado En El Seminario Del Departamento de Ciencia Política, UTDT, Buenos Aires.
 
The paper examines variation in the conditions for and longevity of private investment in thirty electricity and water utilities in Argentina after a deep crisis that triggered ‘obsolescing bargains.’ It argues that investors’ prior choices regarding portfolio structure affect their post-crisis experiences. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate the number of privatized state enterprises in the two sectors in developing countries in the 1990s.
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Risk Management and the Stated Investment Costs by Independent Power Producers
Author: Kashi, Bahman. 2015
Source: Energy Economics 49 (May): 660–68.
 
This article explores, and empirically tests, that, in less developed countries, the independent power producers have an incentive to overstate the investment cost as an instrument to mitigate the country risk in greenfield electricity generation project. The World Bank PPI Database is used as the main source of the initial list of projects and their basic information.
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Transport

Criteria for the Management Partnership Model in Croatian Seaports
Author: Hadžić, Ana Perić, Alen Jugović, and Marko Perić. 2015.
Source: Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 28 (1): 226–42.
 
The aim of this paper is to define the relevant criteria for the evaluation of public–private partnerships for the implementation of the management partnership model in Croatian seaports.  The World Bank PPI database is used to assess private sector participation in ports in the last 20 years in developing countries. The results provide point out that technical-technological and organizational development are the key criteria for a successful partnership model.
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Critical Factors and Risk Allocation for PPP Policy: Comparison between HSR and General Infrastructure Projects
Author: Chou, Jui-Sheng, H. Ping Tserng, Chieh Lin, and Chun-Pin Yeh. 2012.
Source: Transport Policy 22 (July): 36–48.
 
This study compared the use of public–private partnership (PPP) policy between high speed rail  projects and general infrastructure projects. Based on extensive literature reviews, drivers for adopting PPP strategy, critical success factors, and preferred risk factor allocation were collected to design a structural questionnaire for professionals in Taiwan and to elicit their PPP project experience. The World Bank PPI database was referred to in estimating the number of countries inviting private participation in infrastructure projects.
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Public–private Partnerships in Roads and Government Support: Trends in Transition and Developing Economies
Author: Queiroz, Cesar, Nevena Vajdic, and Goran Mladenovic. 2013.
Source: Transportation Planning and Technology 36 (3): 231–43.
 
Drawing on the World Bank PPI Database, this paper analyzes recent trends in road projects with private participation in developing and transition economies, as well as their policy implications. In addition, the paper addresses the issue of the minimum toll rate required to attract private investors.
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The Global Production of Transportation Public–Private Partnerships
Author: Siemiatycki, Matti. 2013.
Source: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (4): 1254–72.
 
Two large datasets were used to examine the global geography of roads, bridges, railways, urban transit, seaport and airport public–private partnerships - the Major Project Survey and the World Bank PPI database. The results show that the production of public–private partnerships worldwide has been dominated by a relatively small number of highly globalized construction contractors, engineering firms, financiers, accountancies and consultants from developed countries, who have focused their activities in a narrow set of regions.
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The Influence of the Institutional Environment on Public–private Partnership Transport Project
Author: Pérez-D’Oleo, J., C. Castro, I. Herraiz, and S. Carpintero. 2015.
Source: Urban Transport XXI, 146: 399–410
 
The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of institutional environment on the investment carried out through public–private partnerships in middle-and-low income countries for the period 1996–2011. This paper carries out a statistical analysis of the institutional environment indicators, and data of public–private investment in transport, for 80 countries, taken from the World Bank PPI database.
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The Ownership and Management Structure of Container Terminal Concessions
Author: Farrell, Sheila. 2012.
Source: Maritime Policy & Management 39 (1): 7–26.
 
The paper examines geographical differences in concessioning processes, the growth of competitive tendering, the reasons for multi-company ownership of many terminal concessions, the dominant role of shipping lines and global terminal operators,  and the sale and purchase of stakes in terminal concessions after they have been awarded. The data is drawn mainly from the World Bank PPI database for individual terminals and terminal operators.
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Vulnerability in the Transportation Public Private Partnerships
Author: Soomro, M.A. and Xueqing Zhang. 2012.
Source: Public Private Partnerships Body of Knowledge: International Conference 2013, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK , 18-20 March 2013
 
This conference paper is inspired by the existence of a large number of failed and flawed transportation public–private partnerships (PPPs) around the world, and investigates the cases of transportation PPPs failures observed in the past two decades, and evaluates the failure drivers, which caused the PPP failures. This research is based on case studies of failed transportation PPP projects around the world. The failure cases are identified through the World Bank PPI database and an extensive literature review.
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ICT

The Impact of Corruption on Entry Strategy: Evidence from Telecommunication Projects in Emerging Economies
Author: Uhlenbruck, Klaus, Peter Rodriguez, Jonathan Doh, and Lorraine Eden. 2006.
Source: Organization Science 17 (3): 402–14.
 
This paper examines how firms adjust their strategy for entering foreign markets in corrupt environments and how different types of corruption affect firms’ choices. Using data from the World Bank’s PPI Database on 220 telecommunications development projects in 64 emerging economies, the results show that firms adapt to the pressures of corruption via short-term contracting and entry into joint ventures.
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General Trends

The papers in this section look at trends and patterns in private investment in infrastructure across various time frames, geographies and sectors.

An Empirical Analysis of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Projects in the Renewable Energy Sector of China
Author: Chen, Chuan, Qi Wang, and Rui Ying Fang. 2014.
Source: Advanced Materials Research 869–870: 488–94.
 
Aiming at a better understanding of the activities and trends of the private sector in the renewable energy sector of China, this study retrieved project level data from the World Bank PPI database, and examined the data from various dimensions, such as investment size, PPI type, technology, and geographical distribution. The results confirmed the high installation cost of renewable energy projects and highlighted the importance of government subsidies at present and technological advances in the long run to support the development of renewable energy.
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Are Private Investments Serving the Poor in India?
Author: Mukhopadhyay, Chandrima. 2011.
Source: Journal of Infrastructure Development 3 (1): 39–63
 
This article investigates whether the central government has been successful in directing public-private partnerships (PPPs) towards the poor regions in India. The study uses data from the World Bank PPI database to determine private investment stocks in multiple sectors across various regions in terms of an investment index. This study shows that PPPs in India contributes towards the process of uneven development.
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Are Public–private Partnerships (PPPs) the Answer to Africa’s Infrastructure Needs?
Author: Loxley, John. 2013.
Source: Review of African Political Economy 40 (137): 485–95.
 
This paper explores the nature of public private partnerships (PPPs), the extent of their use and their location by sector in Africa using data from World Bank PPI database. It also examines the arguments advanced for the promotion of PPPs and looks critically at them. It concludes that great caution should be exercised in the use of PPPs.
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Financing Water Quality Management
Author: Kauffmann, Céline. 2011.
Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 27 (1): 83–99.
 
This paper examines the recent trends in the development of wastewater infrastructure. It then discusses the investment needs and reviews the potential sources of funding, before turning to recent trends in private-sector participation in water and wastewater treatment infrastructure and the framework conditions to make this participation work in the public interest. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine China's private participation in the wastewater sector.
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Growth And Infrastructure Investment In India: Achievements, Challenges, And Opportunities
Author: Mishra, Aswini Kumar, Kunapareddy Narendra, and Bibhu Prasad Kar. 2013.
Source: Economic Annals 58 (196): 51–70.
 
The paper analyses the recent scenario of infrastructure investment in India. It conducts an overview of the trends in infrastructure investment from the 10th Five Year Plan onwards, and tries to examine the linkage between infrastructure and economic growth. It uses the World Bank PPI database to determine the private sector investment commitments to infrastructure projects in India, Pakistan and other South Asian countries.
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Infrastructure Financing Trends in Africa 2013
Author: The Infrastructure Consortium for Africa Secretariat. 2014.
Source:
 
The ICA Annual Report 2013 shows that progress is being made in channeling more finance from regional actors, as well as international institutions, to strategic and sustainable projects. The report uses data from 2009-2013 in the World Bank PPI database to analyze the investment trends in Africa.
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Infrastructure Investments in Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA)
Author: Kravets, Olga. 2013.
Source: Eastern Partnership Technical Assistance Trust Fund (EIB) Working Papers 2013/01
 
The paper is aimed to spotlight the key infrastructure investments issues and trends in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region. It takes stock and look at the evolution and composition of infrastructure finance in ECA, main funding institutions and international financial institutions that work in the region. Investment volumes in the region are estimated based on the available data from World Bank PPI database and other multilateral development banks.
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Investment Power in Africa: Where from and Where to?
Author: Eberhard, Anton, and Katharine Gratwick. 2013.
Source: Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 14 (1): 39–46.
 
The paper uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate the amount of private investments that have been recorded between 1990 and 2011. It details a number of success stories, including Kenya, South Africa and (potentially) Nigeria, whose policy innovations have replication potential in other Sub-Saharan African countries and beyond.
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Involving the Private Sector and PPPs in Financing Public Investments: Some Opportunities and Challenges
Author: Ahmad, Ehtisham, Amar Bhattacharya, Annalisa Vinella, and Kezhou Xiao. 2014.
Source: LSE Asia Research Centre Working Paper 87.
 
The paper stresses on the issue of accurate information on the generation of sub-national liabilities, as it is of critical importance both to generate adequate signals for investment but also for the macroeconomic management. Using the World Bank PPI database, it describes some general trends in involving the private sector in public projects. It then looks narrowly on key features of public–private partnerships and asymmetric information and finally, draws some policy conclusions.
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Malnutrition, Child Health, and Water Quality: Is There a Role for Private Sector Participation in South Asia?
Author: Kosec, Katrina. 2012.
Source: CESifo Economic Studies 58 (2): 450–70.
 
This article discusses the potential of private sector participation (PSP) to improve the urban water supply in South Asia. Empirical evidence from urban Africa (in part using data from the World Bank PPI database) is presented to show PSP in water is associated with a lower incidence of diarrheal disease and higher rates of access to piped water among young children.
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Neoliberal Versus Post neoliberal Water: Geographies of Privatization and Resistance
Author: Bakker, Karen. 2013.
Source: Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103 (2): 253–60.
 
This article documents the increasingly variegated pattern of urban water supply privatization since the 1990s. The analysis cautions against sweeping generalizations of post neoliberalism often associated with putative alternatives to private water supply. Private sector involvement within water supply, in terms of numbers and investments, was estimated from the World Bank PPI database.
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Openness and the Politics of Potable Water
Author: Rudra, Nita, Nathan M. Jensen, and Nita Rudra. 2011.
Source: Comparative Political Studies 44 (6): 771–803.
 
The paper focuses on the interplay of trade and politics—both international and domestic—as the primary driving forces behind improvements in (or constraints to) water access.  Empirical evidence from 77 developing countries and case studies of Vietnam and India provide support for this hypothesis. Water privatization data was drawn from the World Bank PPI database to test the hypothesis that privatization exacerbated inequality and prevented water access.
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Public-Private Participation in Energy Infrastructure in Middle East and North African Countries: The Role of Institutions for Renewable Energy Sources Diffusion
Author: Somma, Ernesto, and Alessandro Rubino. 2016.
Source: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy; Mersin 6 (3)
 
Using the World Bank PPI database, the paper evaluates the performance and trends of public–private partnership (PPP) in energy infrastructures at the global level and in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. It finds that the PPP growth trend traced a steady increase since the start of privatization and liberalization process that took place in most OECD countries in the 90s and peaked in 2012.
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Public–private Partnerships for Water in Asia: A Review of Two Decades of Experience
Author: Jensen, Olivia. 2017.
Source: International Journal of Water Resources Development 33 (1): 4–30.
 
This article reviews the development of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in water services in Asia over the last two decades and situates the Asian experience within the wider global context. Through a comparative analysis of PPP data from two different sources (the World Bank PPI Database and the Private Sector Participation in Water Database maintained by Global Water Intelligence), the article highlights the critical issue of how ‘private’ is defined in understanding the extent of PPP in Asia, due to the important role played by enterprises under mixed public and private ownership.
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Public–private Partnerships in Roads and Government Support: Trends in Transition and Developing Economies
Author: Queiroz, Cesar, Nevena Vajdic, and Goran Mladenovic. 2013.
Source: Transportation Planning and Technology 36 (3): 231–43.
 
Drawing on the World Bank PPI Database, this paper analyzes recent trends in road projects with private participation in developing and transition economies, as well as their policy implications. In addition, the paper addresses the issue of the minimum toll rate required to attract private investors.
Read more ( KB)
The Global Production of Transportation Public–Private Partnerships
Author: Siemiatycki, Matti. 2013.
Source: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37 (4): 1254–72.
 
Two large datasets were used to examine the global geography of roads, bridges, railways, urban transit, seaport and airport public–private partnerships - the Major Project Survey and the World Bank PPI database. The results show that the production of public–private partnerships worldwide has been dominated by a relatively small number of highly globalized construction contractors, engineering firms, financiers, accountancies and consultants from developed countries, who have focused their activities in a narrow set of regions.
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Urbanization and Demand for Water and Sanitation Services: An Analysis on Cross-Region Investment Requirements
Author: Mukherjee, Sacchidananda, and Debashis Chakraborty. 2016.
Source: MPRA Paper. University Library of Munich, Germany.
 
Given the poor access to water supply and sanitation across several regions, the present analysis attempts to estimate the demand for investment in this sector. The empirical estimates reveals that to achieve universal access to improved WSS by 2019, the stock of investment in water services should reach US $2,240 billion at 2005 prices in 2019. The present quantum and distribution of private investment in the water services sector across the sub-regions was based on the World Bank PPI database.
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Determinants of a Successful PPP

The papers in this section aim to identify factors that are drivers of success or failure in public-private partnerships. Some also highlight the challenges and constraints that exist in specific geographies or sectors.

A Review on Cancellation of PPP Projects in India
Author: Tiwari, Sanjay, and Amit Ashish. 2013.
Source: International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 2 (6): 202–213.
 
This paper reviews the cancellation of privately financed infrastructure projects in the energy, telecom, water and sewerage and transport sectors in India during 1990- 2011. The analysis is based on the data obtained from World Bank PPI database, looking specifically at the investments made in India and cases of pre-closed projects. The study compares the percentage of cancellation (i.e. 1.32%) of private projects in India to its neighboring countries and also helps identify the most critical reasons that lead to cancellations in the different sectors.
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Building Infrastructure through Public Private Partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from South Africa
Author: Sanni, Afeez Olalekan, and Maizon Hashim. 2014.
Source: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3rd Cyprus International Conference on Educational Research, CY-ICER 2014
 
This study is aimed at identifying the challenges in the delivery of social and economic infrastructures in the region through public private partnership procurement arrangements. It reviews current practices of public private partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa (based on past studies, reports and relevant policy documents) while using South Africa implementation process as case study for the region. The lack of capacity and policy direction, high participation costs, delays in negotiation and poor performance are among the challenges identified. The World Bank PPI database was used to measure the number and investments of private projects in developing countries, 1990 – 2011.
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Credit Rating Methods for Public–Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Asia
Author: Tsunoda, Jiro, Ramraj Pai, and Pawan Agrawal. 2014.
Source: South Asia Operational Knowledge Working Paper Series, No. 3, Asian Development Bank
 
This paper explains the key rating factors used by domestic credit rating agencies in the final rating determination and suggests methodologies that can help reduce procedural bottlenecks and boost credit availability in South Asia. The World PPI database is used to provide supporting data for the section on constraints faced by public-private partnership projects.
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Criteria for the Management Partnership Model in Croatian Seaports
Author: Hadžić, Ana Perić, Alen Jugović, and Marko Perić. 2015.
Source: Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 28 (1): 226–42.
 
The aim of this paper is to define the relevant criteria for the evaluation of public–private partnerships for the implementation of the management partnership model in Croatian seaports.  The World Bank PPI database is used to assess private sector participation in ports in the last 20 years in developing countries. The results provide point out that technical-technological and organizational development are the key criteria for a successful partnership model.
Read more ( KB)
Critical Factors and Risk Allocation for PPP Policy: Comparison between HSR and General Infrastructure Projects
Author: Chou, Jui-Sheng, H. Ping Tserng, Chieh Lin, and Chun-Pin Yeh. 2012.
Source: Transport Policy 22 (July): 36–48.
 

This study compared the use of public–private partnership (PPP) policy between high speed rail  projects and general infrastructure projects. Based on extensive literature reviews, drivers for adopting PPP strategy, critical success factors, and preferred risk factor allocation were collected to design a structural questionnaire for professionals in Taiwan and to elicit their PPP project experience. The World Bank PPI database was referred to in estimating the number of countries inviting private participation in infrastructure projects.


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Determinants of PPP in Infrastructure in Developing Economies
Author: Sharma, Chandan. 2012.
Source: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy 6 (2): 149–66.
 
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that determine Public Private Partnership (PPP) in infrastructure by using the World Bank PPI database for the period 1990-2008. The results suggest that large size and relatively higher income markets attract more PPP projects. The empirical evidence also suggests that macroeconomic stability, quality of regulation and governance are important factors in determining PPP in the infrastructure.
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Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in the Developing World: Lessons from Recent Experience
Author: Trebilcock, Michael, and Michael Rosenstock. 2015.
Source: The Journal of Development Studies 51 (4): 335–54.
 
This paper reviews the benefits and drawbacks of public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the experience to date, focusing in particular on developing economies. It uses the PPI database to analyze the pattern of PPP activity in the developing world. The paper argues that institutional capacity is a key determinant of PPP success and in mitigating potentially welfare-reducing contract renegotiations evident in the Latin American experience
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Public-Private Partnership Experience in the International Arena: Case of Turkey
Author: Gurgun Asli Pelin, and Touran Ali. 2014.
Source: Journal of Management in Engineering 30 (6): 4014029.
 
An intensive public-private partnership (PPP) literature survey has been made to present the common success factors, risks, limitations, and challenges in Europe, the U.K., China, U.S., and Turkey as well as understanding the differences in the implementations. The World Bank PPI database was used to assess in which countries, within the Europe and the Central Asia region, are investments concentrated. The overall analysis pointed to the following major factors for successful PPP projects -  a viable economic environment, proper contractual arrangements for appropriate risk allocation, well-established legal basis, public support, transparency, and a central unit to standardize the procedures.
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Role of Public Private Partnership in Infrastructure Development (Focus on Albania)
Author: Kripa, Ermela. 2013.
Source: Proceedings in ARSA - Advanced Research in Scientific Areas, no. 1 (December).
 
The aim of this paper is to present the determinants of public–private partnership (PPP) influencing infrastructure development in Albania. The study conducts a comparative analysis of the countries in the region using data from the World Bank PPI database. The results show that macroeconomic stability and size of markets are important determinants of PPPs in infrastructure.
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Vulnerability in the Transportation Public Private Partnerships
Author: Soomro, M.A. and Xueqing Zhang. 2012.
Source: Public Private Partnerships Body of Knowledge: International Conference 2013, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK , 18-20 March 2013
 
This conference paper is inspired by the existence of a large number of failed and flawed transportation public–private partnerships (PPPs) around the world, and investigates the cases of transportation PPPs failures observed in the past two decades, and evaluates the failure drivers, which caused the PPP failures. This research is based on case studies of failed transportation PPP projects around the world. The failure cases are identified through the World Bank PPI database and an extensive literature review.
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Enabling Environment

The papers in this section explore the role of regulatory and legal frameworks, institutions and governance in the facilitation of public-private partnerships and private investment in infrastructure.

Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Asia-Pacific: The 2011 Infrascope
Author: The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2011.
Source:
 
This comprises a summary and analysis of a benchmark index and learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in the Asia-Pacific region to carry out sustainable public-private infrastructure partnerships. Data for the quantitative indicators are drawn from the World Bank PPI database, and from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Risk Briefing service.
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Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: The 2014 Infrascope
Author: The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2014.
Source:
 
This report is an informational tool and benchmarking index that assesses the capacity of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to carry out sustainable public-private partnerships in infrastructure. The indicator on quality of transport, water and electricity projects is based on data on distress and failure rates of concession projects in these sectors over the past 10 years, drawn from the World Bank PPI database and the observations by researchers in-country. The analysis and content of this index covers the period from May 2014 to August 2014.
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Infrastructure Privatisation: Oversold, Misunderstood and Inappropriate
Author: Tan, Jeff. 2011.
Source: Development Policy Review 29 (1): 47–74.
 
This paper reviews the evidence (including results from the World Bank PPI database) and seeks to explain the results in terms of the high capital costs and low revenues that have necessitated public financing and risk-sharing, diluting private incentives and requiring regulation. It argues that the emphasis on strengthening weak regulatory capacities in poor countries is misplaced, because these are the outcome of the development process, and are constrained by technical capacities, informational problems and the resources available.
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Institutional and Political Determinants of Private Participation in Infrastructure
Author: Moszoro, Marian, Gonzalo Araya, Fernanda Ruiz-Nuñez and Jordan Schwartz. 2014
Source: Discussion Paper No 2014-15. Prepared for the Roundtable: Public Private Partnerships for Transport Infrastructure: Renegotiations, how to approach them and economic outcomes. 27-28 October 2014, George Mason University, Washington D.C., USA
 
The paper aims to assess the determinants of private financing of infrastructure in emerging markets and developing economies. The authors assemble a large panel of project-level technical and financial data (using the World Bank PPI database) and country-level economic, institutional, political, and governance variables to. The study shows that upstream “enabling” institutions, policies, and regulations and sector economics need to be addressed simultaneously to facilitate private infrastructure investment financing.
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International Organizations and Political Risk–The Case of Multilateral Development Banks in Infrastructure Projects
Author: Jandhyala, Srividya. 2016
Source:
 
This paper examines how Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) partner with firms to lower the likelihood of project distress caused by ex-post recontracting between States and firms. Analysis is conducted using a sample of 2117 infrastructure projects from the World Bank PPI database, which include investments made from 1995 to 2009 and cover 45 developing countries. Empirical results provide evidence that private investment projects with MDB participation are less likely to be distressed.
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Political Institutions of Electricity Regulation: The Case of Turkey
Author: Durakoğlu, S. Mustafa. 2011.
Source: Energy Policy 39 (9): 5578–87.
 
This paper adopts an institutional approach and attempts to identify the political endowments of Turkey in order to further analyze whether the market reforms succeeded in bringing about sufficient checks to cure the institutional problems. It uses the World Bank PPI database to analyze the private investment flows in electricity in the different regions. The results show that the current regulatory structure, especially government–regulator relations, yet fails to meet good regulatory governance criteria.
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Privatization, Governance, and Survival: MNE Investments in Private Participation Projects in Emerging Economies
Author: Jiang, Yi, Mike W. Peng, Xiaohua Yang, and Canan C. Mutlu. 2015.
Source: Journal of World Business 50 (2): 294–301.
 
This paper integrates transaction cost economics, bargaining model, and the institution-based view, to examine the bargaining process between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and host governments. Leveraging data from 113 emerging economies from the World Bank PPI database, the paper finds that the survival of MNE investments is dependent on the bargaining outcomes between MNE and host governments around investment location, governance structure, and host governments’ ownership of the private participation projects.
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Privatization, Institutional Reform, and Performance in the Latin American Electricity Sector
Author: Balza, Lenin, Raúl Alberto Jiménez, Mercado Díaz, and Jorge Enrique. 2013
Source: Technical Notes. Inter-American Development Bank.
 
This paper explores the relationship between private sector participation, institutional reform, and performance of the electricity sector in 18 Latin American countries over the last four decades, using the World Bank PPI database.  The results suggest that privatization is robustly associated with improvements in quality and efficiency, but not with accessibility to the service, and, that  regulatory quality is strongly associated with better performance in terms of both quality and accessibility.
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Relationship between state institutions and private participation in infrastructure in developing economies: A case study approach
Author: Regan, M., Jim Smith and Peter Love. 2013.
Source: Paper presented at RICS Cobra 2013, New Delhi, India.
 
This paper examines the relationship between institutional development and the delivery of Public-Private Infrastructure projects using case studies in three developing and transition economies in Africa: Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria. The case studies were selected from a wider study of developing nations using development classifications and data prepared by the World Economic Forum from 2005-2010, and the World Bank PPI database for the same period.
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Revisiting the Obsolescing Bargain in Post-Crisis Argentina: Investor Portfolios and Regulatory Outcomes
Author: Post, Alison, and María Victoria Murillo. 2012.
Source: Trabajo Presentado En El Seminario Del Departamento de Ciencia Política, UTDT, Buenos Aires.
 
The paper examines variation in the conditions for and longevity of private investment in thirty electricity and water utilities in Argentina after a deep crisis that triggered ‘obsolescing bargains.’ It argues that investors’ prior choices regarding portfolio structure affect their post-crisis experiences. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate the number of privatized state enterprises in the two sectors in developing countries in the 1990s.
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The Impact of Corruption on Entry Strategy: Evidence from Telecommunication Projects in Emerging Economies
Author: Uhlenbruck, Klaus, Peter Rodriguez, Jonathan Doh, and Lorraine Eden. 2006.
Source: Organization Science 17 (3): 402–14.
 
This paper examines how firms adjust their strategy for entering foreign markets in corrupt environments and how different types of corruption affect firms’ choices. Using data from the World Bank’s PPI Database on 220 telecommunications development projects in 64 emerging economies, the results show that firms adapt to the pressures of corruption via short-term contracting and entry into joint ventures.
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The Influence of the Institutional Environment on Public–private Partnership Transport Project
Author: Pérez-D’Oleo, J., C. Castro, I. Herraiz, and S. Carpintero. 2015.
Source: Urban Transport XXI, 146: 399–410
 
The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of institutional environment on the investment carried out through public–private partnerships in middle-and-low income countries for the period 1996–2011. This paper carries out a statistical analysis of the institutional environment indicators, and data of public–private investment in transport, for 80 countries, taken from the World Bank PPI database.
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Transaction Costs in Public–Private Partnerships: Weight of Institutional Quality in Developing Countries
Author: Baker, Nicole Ballouz. 2016.
Source: Public Performance & Management Review 40 (2): 431–55.
 
This paper explores the impact of institutional quality on the expansion of public–private partnership (PPP) markets in developing countries. Panel regressions, on a sample of 83 developing countries for the period 1999– 2011 from the World Bank PPI database, provide evidence on the positive impact of judicial independence and regulatory quality in attracting private investors to PPP markets regardless of the degree of uncertainty in the exchange environment.
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Turkish experience with public private partnerships in infrastructure: Opportunities and challenges
Author: Uğur Emek, 2015
Source: Utilities Policy, Volume 37, 120-129
 

This study attempts to explore whether PPPs would genuinely bring efficiency gains in the delivery of public services or pose new challenges for the performance of public administration from a broader economic perspective, with a focus on Turkey which has a rich history of PPPs. The World Bank PPI database is used to compare PPP projects in Turkey with PPP projects in Europe and Central Asia and other major PPP players like Brazil and India


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Infrastructure Financing

The papers in this section analyze the emerging trends in infrastructure finance, in terms of amounts, type and sources of financing.

Case Studies on Leveraging Private Investment for Infrastructure
Author: Biousse, Kim and Kaori Miyamoto. 2014.
Source: Development Co-operation Directorate Working Paper, OECD Publishing.
 
This paper provides an overview of infrastructure projects with private investment in infrastructure based on data extracted from the World Bank PPI database. The data analysis by number of infrastructure projects with private participation shows that two thirds of projects are supported by multilateral development banks only. In terms of income levels, there is little support to projects in low-income countries, but the support is more or less equally divided between lower middle income countries and upper middle income countries.
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Changes in Development Finance in Asia: Trends, Challenges, and Policy Implications
Author: Nishizawa, Toshiro. 2011.
Source: Asian Economic Policy Review 6 (2): 225–44.
 
New trends and challenges have been identified in areas such as the transformation of development aid, public–private partnerships (PPPs), and green finance. The paper draws on the World Bank PPI database to provide information on the PPP infrastructure finance trends. The paper argues that for various financial resources to bring about tangible benefits, policymakers should take account of complementarities and synergies among the full range of available financial resources.
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Evaluation of the Demonstration Effect of IFC’s Involvement in Infrastructure in Africa
Author: Castalia Strategic Advisors. 2011.
Source:
 
This paper by Castalia evaluates whether and how International Finance Corporation's (IFC) activities in infrastructure in Africa have generated demonstration effects. The project database for each focus country was compiled from the World Bank PPI database and information from the IFC’s records to create an initial list of PPI activities from 1993 to 2009.
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Exploring Potential Data Sources for Estimating Private Climate Finance
Author: Caruso, Randy and Raphaël Jachnik. 2014.
Source: OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 69, OECD Publishing.
 
The paper reviews a number of commercial and public data sources (including the World Bank PPI database) to examine their potential for increasing coverage and understanding of the volume and characteristics of private climate finance beyond renewable energy projects. The analysis finds that the reviewed databases capture a vast amount of at least partial data on private finance and investment in climate-relevant sectors.
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Foreign Direct Investment in Infrastructure in Developing Countries: Does Regulation Make a Difference?
Author: Kirkpatrick, C. H, David Parker and Yin-Fang Zhang. 2004.
Source: University of Manchester: Centre on Regulation and Competition.
 
This paper provides an empirical examination of the relationship between the quality of the regulatory framework and foreign direct investment (FDI) in infrastructure in middle and lower income developing countries during the period 1990 to 2002. Data on foreign (private) direct investment were obtained from the World Bank PPI database. The results confirm that FDI in infrastructure responded positively to an effective domestic regulatory framework.
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Informing the Financing of Universal Energy Access: An Assessment of Current Financial Flows
Author: Bazilian, Morgan, Patrick Nussbaumer, Giorgio Gualberti, Erik Haites, Michael Levi, Judy Siegel, Daniel M. Kammen, and Joergen Fenhann. 2011.
Source: The Electricity Journal 24 (7): 57–82.
 
The authors focus on the timeframe 2000–2009, and utilize data from project level databases (Official Development Finance and the World Bank PPI database) and data from National Accounts (Gross Fixed Capital Formation and Foreign Direct Investments).  A brief analysis of the current macro financial flows in the electricity and gas distribution sectors in developing countries suggests that the ‘funding gap’ is, at minimum, a factor of five less than that required for universal household access to electricity.
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Infrastructure Finance Uncertainty and Change in Sub-Saharan Africa
Author: PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC). 2010
Source:
 
The future of infrastructure finance in Africa is at a crossroads. Traditional finance models have faltered in the wake of the global economic crisis, compounded by significant political and systemic obstacles that could derail a nascent recovery. The market for infrastructure finance has changed and will continue to evolve. This paper explores the recent gains that Africa has made to bridge the infrastructure gap, the challenges facing stakeholders and the outlook for the future. It uses the World Bank PPI database to analyze the trends in infrastructure spending.
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Institutional Investors and Infrastructure Financing
Author: Della Croce, Raffaele and Juan Yermo, J. 2013.
Source: OECD Working Papers on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions, No.36, OECD Publishing.
 
The paper focusses on the role of institutional investors and concludes that long term financing is constrained by the short-termism increasingly pervasive in capital markets as well as structural and policy barriers such as regulatory disincentives, lack of appropriate financing vehicles, limited investment and risk management expertise, transparency, viability issues and a lack of appropriate data and investment benchmarks for illiquid assets such as infrastructure. It refers to the World Bank PPI database when estimating the number of transport sector public–private partnerships in 1990-2011.
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Official Support for Private Sector Participation in Developing Country Infrastructure
Author: Miyamoto, Kaori, and Kim Biousse. 2014.
Source: OECD Development Co-operation Working Papers, No. 19, OECD Publishing, Paris.
 
The objective of this study is to take stock of support by bilateral and multilateral donors for private sector participation in developing country infrastructure. The World Bank PPI database was used to estimate the distribution of the financing of infrastructure projects by donors and domestic lenders (2008-2012), the types of projects invested in as well as the different participation modalities. The results of the study indicate that official development finance for infrastructure is increasing, with a sizable proportion disbursed to support the private sector directly.
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Project Finance and Projects in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries
Author: Kripa, Ermela, and Halit Xhafa. 2013.
Source: European Academic Research 1 (2): 169–84.
 
The purpose of the study is to show the importance of using project finance in infrastructure investments in developing countries. The paper focusses on only the energy sector and uses data of some projects in central and eastern European countries from the World Bank PPI database. It finds that the propensity of firms to use project finance is high and statistically significant when large sunk investments have state owned primary buyer firms in risky countries.
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Project Design and Procurement

The papers in this section examine specific aspects of project and contract design that affect the viability of infrastructure projects (like project costs) as well as different aspects of concessioning.

(Un)bundling Infrastructure Procurement: Evidence from Water Supply and Sewage Projects
Author: Estache, Antonio, and Atsushi Iimi. 2011.
Source: Utilities Policy 19 (2): 104–14.
 
Using data on public procurement auctions for water and sewage projects in developing countries, this paper shows that bidder entry is crucially endogenous, especially because it is determined by the auctioneer's bundling and unbundling strategy. Using the World Bank PPI database, it finds that the top 10 percent largest firms are awarded about half of total infrastructure public–private partnership contracts.
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Drivers of Conflict in Developing Country Infrastructure Projects: Experience from the Water and Pipeline Sectors
Author: Boudet Hilary Schaffer, Jayasundera Dilanka Chinthana, and Davis Jennifer. 2011.
Source: Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (7): 498–511.
 
The principal objective of this research is to identify combinations of country, project, and stakeholder factors that are associated with the emergence of legal and political conflict within natural gas and oil pipeline projects and water supply concessions and leases. The analysis includes data from 26 infrastructure projects spanning 31 countries. The water-supply sector cases were drawn from two databases - the World Bank’s PPI database and the Project Finance International project database. Overall, the study findings suggest that several factors associated with conflict in infrastructure projects can be minimized with careful project design.
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Local Public-Services Provision under Public–Private Partnerships: Contractual Design and Contracting Parties Incentives
Author: Athias, Laure. 2013.
Source: Local Government Studies 39 (3): 312–31.
 
The paper investigates the effects of demand risk allocation on the accountability of procuring authorities regarding consumers changing demand, as well as on the cost-reducing effort incentives of the private public-service provider. It shows that contracts in which the private provider bears demand risk motivate more the public authority from responding to customer needs. Data from the World Bank PPI database was used to analyze which type of contractual form was predominantly used in LAC between 1990 and 2000.
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Private Participation in Infrastructure Project and Its Impact on the Project Cost
Author: Deng, Zhongqi, Shunfeng Song, and Yongjun Chen. 2016
Source: China Economic Review 39 (July): 63–76.
 
Very little is known about whether or not public–private partnerships (PPPs) are more efficient than pure-public or pure-private modes. Using data from the World Bank PPI database and “China Statistical Yearbook”, this paper improves the understanding of public–private capital structures, provides some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence that private participation affects PPPs cost through the knowledge-transfer effect and the cost-increase effect.
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Risk Management and the Stated Investment Costs by Independent Power Producers
Author: Kashi, Bahman. 2015
Source: Energy Economics 49 (May): 660–68.
 
This article explores, and empirically tests, that, in less developed countries, the independent power producers have an incentive to overstate the investment cost as an instrument to mitigate the country risk in greenfield electricity generation project. The World Bank PPI Database is used as the main source of the initial list of projects and their basic information.
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The Ownership and Management Structure of Container Terminal Concessions
Author: Farrell, Sheila. 2012.
Source: Maritime Policy & Management 39 (1): 7–26.
 
The paper examines geographical differences in concessioning processes, the growth of competitive tendering, the reasons for multi-company ownership of many terminal concessions, the dominant role of shipping lines and global terminal operators,  and the sale and purchase of stakes in terminal concessions after they have been awarded. The data is drawn mainly from the World Bank PPI database for individual terminals and terminal operators.
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A Quarter Century Effort yet to Come of Age : A Survey of Power Sector Reforms in Developing Countries
Author: Timilsina, Govinda R., Tooraj Jamasb, and Rabindra Nepal. 2015.
Source:

This paper comprehensively reviews the empirical and theoretical literature on the linkages between power sector reforms, economic and technical efficiency, and poverty reduction. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to compare pre- and post- Asian financial crisis investments.
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Back to Planning : How to Close Brazil’s Infrastructure Gap in Times of Austerity
Author: Kikoni, Edith, Martin Raiser, Cecilia M. Briceno-Garmendia, Joseph Kizito Mubiru, Roland N. Clarke, Lorena Vinuela, and Paul Procee. 2017.
Source:
This paper is a summary of a number of background papers analyzing the challenges of infrastructure in Brazil. The central argument is that Brazil can and will need to substantially increase the efficiency of infrastructure spending to close the gap. This would be possible with appropriate policies, institutions and regulation in place. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate public-private partnership investments in Brazil from 1990-2015.
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Benchmarking public-private Partnerships Procurement 2015 - A pilot in 10 economies
Author: The World Bank, and PPIAF. 2015.
Source:

The Benchmarking Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) Procurement 2015 report aims to support and enhance the decisions that feed into policy-making by highlighting key aspects of a country’s PPP legal and regulatory framework. The World Bank PPI database is referred to in calculating the number of developing economies implementing PPPs between 2002 and 2013.
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Do Countries Learn from Experience in Infrastructure PPP ? PPP Practice and Contract Cancellation
Author: Marcelo Gordillo, Darwin, Jordan Z. Schwartz, Xavier Cledan Mandri-Perrott, and Ruth Schuyler House. 2017.
Source:

This paper examines whether countries do, indeed, learn from experience to improve the probability of success of public-private partnerships (PPPs) at the national level. The data is taken from the based on data from the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database. The results confirm that PPP experience reduces the likelihood of contract cancellation.


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Effects of Multilateral Support on Infrastructure PPP Contract Cancellation
Author: Marcelo Gordillo, Darwin, and Ruth Schuyler House. 2016.
Source:

This paper examines the relationship between multilateral support and contract cancellation in long-term infrastructure public-private partnerships. The analysis draws on the World Bank PPI dataset and employs a multi-level econometric model. The results suggest that multilateral support has a positive effect on the survival of long-term public-private partnership infrastructure contracts.


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How to Engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets
Author: Torres De Mastle, Clemencia, Javier Encinas, Edward Farquharson, and Edward Raymond Yescombe. 2011.
Source:

This book looks at emerging public-private partnership markets and discusses the nuances that emerge in the recommended paths when taking into account the diversity in different country contexts. The World Bank PPI database is used to estimate private investment commitments in developing countries to new and existing infrastructure projects between 1990-2008.
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Infrastructure Development: The Roles of the Public and Private Sectors - World Bank Group’s Approach to Supporting Investments in Infrastructure
Author: Irwin, Timothy, Ellis J. Juan, and Michael Warlters. 2005.
Source:

This note describes the World Bank Group’s approach to supporting investment in infrastructure. It uses the World Bank PPI database to estimate PPI commitments in developing countries from 1990-2004.
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Investment in Air Transport Infrastructure: Guidance for Developing Private Participation
Author: Hussain, Zakir, Mustafa (Editor), and Booz Allen Hamilton. 2010.
Source:

This paper discusses the development of appropriate private sector participation to optimize the provision of air transport infrastructure (ATI). Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to discuss the trends in public-private partnership investments in ATI.
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PPI in Poor Countries : How to Increase Private Participation in Infrastructure Management and Investment
Author: Leigland, James. 2010.
Source:

The paper explores what role private participation in infrastructure projects can play in improving infrastructure service provision in countries. Data from the World Bank PPI database is used to compare the contribution of private participation in infrastructure in IDA vs non-IDA countries in 1995–2008.
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Public-Private Partnerships : Promise and Hype
Author: Klein, Michael U. 2015.
Source:

This paper provides perspectives on patterns of public-private partnerships in infrastructure across time and space. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to look at the trends in private investments in developing economies from 1990-2015.
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Private Capital for Railway Development
Author: Lawrence, Martha B., and Gerald Paul Ollivier. 2014.
Source:

The paper discusses the steps China could take to attract private capital for railway development. Information from the World Bank PPI database is used to estimate public-private partnership investment in railways in China from 1990 and 2012.
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Private Infrastructure in East Asia : Lessons Learned in the Aftermath of the Crisis.
Author: Baietti, Aldo. 2001.
Source:

This report reviews the models adopted in East Asia to promote private participation in infrastructure (PPI). Based on data from the World Bank PPI database (1994-1999), it analyzes the impact of the financial crisis on investment trends by private sponsors and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of PPI models in six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam.
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Private Sector Participation in Transmission Systems: Making It Work
Author: Oguah, Samuel Kwesi Ewuah, and Pedro E. Sanchez. 2015.
Source:

The principal argument of the paper is that in the presence of the right policies and investment climate, private sector participation in transmission systems can improve the security, reliability, and quality of supply in a cost-effective manner. It uses data from the World Bank PPI database to analyze the distribution of private sector investments in transmission infrastructure by country income levels between 1994–2013.
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Privatization : Trends and Recent Developments
Author: Kikeri, Sunita, and Aishetu Kolo. 2005.
Source:

An update of the World Bank Group’s PPI Database shows that in 2008 privatizations in developing countries fell to US$38 billion, down 70 percent from 2007. Privatization slowed as the global financial crisis took hold and as political difficulties continued. At the same time, the wave of nationalizations expected in the wake of the crisis did not occur. Instead, preliminary results for 2009 show a slight uptick in privatization value as markets began to stabilize— and as growing budget deficits led to new pressures for privatization.
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Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Water Utilities : A Review of Experiences in Developing Countries
Author: Marin, Philippe. 2009.
Source:

This study reviews the overall spread of urban water public-private partnerships during the past 15 years, using the World Bank PPI database, and seeks to respond to the questions of whether and how they have helped to improve services and to expand access for the populations concerned.
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Results of Railway Privatization in Latin America
Author: Sharp, Richard G. 2005.
Source:

This paper reviews the performance of railway concessions in Latin America over the period extending from the initial Argentina concessions in 1991-1993 through 2004. The cumulative investments made in different regions is this time period is estimated based on the data in the World Bank PPI database. The results of the overall assessment of rail concessioning in Latin America have been positive, particularly for freight railways.
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Rethinking Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean : Spending Better to Achieve More
Author: Andres, Luis Alberto, Ulf Gerrit Narloch, Stephane Straub, Marianne Fay, Charles James Edward Fox, and Michael Alan Slawson. 2017.
Source:

Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC) infrastructure does not correspond to the aspirations of its growing middle class. The authors propose focusing on closing the "service gap" instead of the "infrastructure gap", by ensuring that spending (particularly of scarce public resources) is well targeted and efficient. Data on investments with private participation in the LAC region were derived from the World Bank PPI Database
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Revisiting Public-Private Partnerships in the Power Sector
Author: Vagliasindi, Maria. 2013.
Source:

This paper reviews the impact of the recent financial crisis on public-private partnership investment compared with what happened in earlier financial crises, largely based on information from the World Bank PPI database, on 105 developing countries, covering all the regions, from 1993 to 2008 .
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The Effects of Country Risk and Conflict on Infrastructure PPPs
Author: Andres, Luis, Gonzalo Araya, and Jordan Schwartz. 2013.
Source:

Through an empirical analysis of the relationship between private participation in infrastructure and country risk, the paper shows that country risk ratings are a reliable predictor of infrastructure investment levels in developing countries. The paper utilizes data from the World Bank PPI database, regarding 130 developing countries from 1990 until 2010.
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The Private Provision of Infrastructure : Opportunities for Emerging Markets
Author: Grishin, Vadim Nikolaevich, and Tom Walton. 2016.
Source:

The traditional role of financing and operating infrastructure projects has been shaken up in recent decades by the emergence of public-private partnerships. All investments trends in different sectors and regions in this paper are determined based on the World Bank PPI database. Designed and implemented correctly, these partnerships can bring greater efficiency and sustainability to the provision of public services such as water and sanitation, electric power, transport, and telecommunications.
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The State of PPPs: Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets & Developing Economies 1991-2015
Author: Ruiz-Nuñez, Fernanda, and Clive Harris. 2016.
Source:

This report uses data from the World Bank PPI Database to analyze broad trends of public-private partnership (PPP) investment in infrastructure from 1991 to 2015. Specifically, it examines factors behind the growth and declines in investment; it explores the use of financial instruments, the role of government support, multilateral development bank assistance and the procurement process; and it assesses renegotiations and cancelations, and the overall readiness of countries to implement PPPs.
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Triggers of Contract Breach : Contract Design, Shocks, or Institutions
Author: Nose, Manabu. 2014.
Source:

This paper constructs a large contract-level data set to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. It gathers contractual dispute information from two data sets to form a universe of dispute cases - the World Bank PPI database and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Database of Treaty-based Investor-State Dispute Settlement Cases. It finds that less-democratic and resource-dependent governments are more likely to breach contracts, especially after large global shocks.
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World Investment and Political Risk - 2013
Author: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). 2014.
Source:

In this report, investors’ perceptions and risk-mitigation strategies as they make decisions and plan for the future are examined. The World Bank PPI Database is used to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. It is found that investors continue to rank political risk as a key obstacle to investing in developing countries.
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