Publications

Since its creation, the PPI Database has been the main information source for trends in private participation in infrastructure in developing countries for a large number of publications. The list below contain publications that rely on data from the PPI Database. If you have any publications that you would like featured on this page, please email them to us at ppidatabase@worldbank.org.
publication


International Organizations and Political Risk – The case of multilateral development banks in infrastructure projects
Author/Publisher: Srividya Jandhyala (2016)

This working paper examines how Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) partner with firms to lower the likelihood of project distress caused by ex-post re-contracting between States and firms. It argues that MDBs provide operational assistance to projects which ensure greater upfront review and development, more balanced allocation of risks between investors and States, and increased oversight in implementation. It expects that the effect of MDBs to be stronger in countries with weak institutional development and where MDBs have greater leverage. Support for these hypotheses is presented using a sample of 2,117 infrastructure projects in the PPI database from 1995 to 2009.

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The Economic Impact of Infrastructure and Public-Private Partnerships (Draft Version)
Author/Publisher: Clio Dintilhac, Fernanda Ruiz-Nuñez, Zichao Wei (2015)

This draft paper was prepared by World Bank in 2015. It summarizes the most recent literature on the empirical impact of infrastructure and Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) on economic growth, jobs, income distribution and poverty in developing countries.

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Institutional and Political Determinants of Private Participation in Infrastructure
Author/Publisher: Marian Moszoro, Gonzalo Araya, Fernanda Ruiz-Nuñez Jordan Schwartz (2014)

This discussion paper was published by OECD in 2014. The authors assembled a large panel of project-level technical and financial data and country-level economic, institutional, political, and governance variables to assess the determinants of private financing of infrastructure in emerging markets and developing economies.

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Involving the Private Sector and PPPs in Financing Public Investments: Some opportunities and challenges
Author/Publisher: Ehtisham Ahmad, Amar Bhattacharya, Annalisa Vinella, Kezhou Xiao (2014)

This working paper published by the London School of Economics stresses that the issue of accurate information on the generation of sub-national liabilities is of critical importance both to generate adequate signals for investment but also for the macroeconomic management.

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Triggers of Contract Breach: Contract Design, Shocks, or Institutions?
Author/Publisher: Manabu Nose (2014)

This policy research working paper is published by the World Bank’s MIGA and highlights contract designs and economic cycles that could significantly affect host government’s incentive to breach contracts or re-negotiate contractual terms. This paper also offers analysis on cross-country heterogeneity about the effects of micro and macro triggers on breach of contract. Following a recent theoretical literature on state capacity and development, it looks at how the causal relationship between the probability of contract breach and potential triggers differs by the level of state fragility, inclusiveness of political institutions, and natural resource dependency.

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Case Studies on Leveraging Private Investment for Infrastructure
Author/Publisher: OECD (2014)

The case study is prepared by OECD in 2014. This paper provides an overview of infrastructure projects with private investment in infrastructure based on data extracted mainly from the PPI Database.

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Exploring Potential Data Sources for Estimating Private Climate Finance
Author/Publisher: Randy Caruso, Raphaël Jachnik (2014)

This working paper published by OECD in 2014 reviews a number of commercial and public data sources, including the PPI Database, to examine their potential for increasing coverage and understanding of the characteristics of private climate finance beyond energy projects.

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Official Support for Private Sector Participation in Developing Country Infrastructure
Author/Publisher: Kaori Miyamoto, Kim Biousse (2014)

This working paper was published by OECD in 2014. The objective of this study is to take stock of support by bilateral and multilateral donors for private sector participation in developing country infrastructure.

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Institutional investors and infrastructure financing
Author/Publisher: Raffaele Della Croce, Juan Yermo (2013)

This working paper published by OECD assembles a large panel of project-level technical and financial data and country-level economic, institutional, political, and governance variables to assess the determinants of private financing of infrastructure in emerging markets and developing economies.

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The Effects of Country Risk and Conflict on Infrastructure PPPs
Author/Publisher: Gonzalo Araya, Jordan Schwartz, Luis Andres (2013)

This policy research working paper was published by the World Bank Sustainable Development Network Infrastructure Policy Unit. The authors look at PPI data for conflict-affected countries and zero out the years in which a set of conflict-affected countries exited their conflict periods. This reveals patterns related to how long it takes countries to see PPI begin to flow into their country after conflict ends, and which sectors are most likely to benefit from investment.

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World Investment and Political Risk
Author/Publisher: World Bank MIGA (2013)

This flagship report produced by MIGA is divided into three sections: World Investment Trends and Corporate Perspectives, The Political Risk Insurance Industry and Breach of Contract. The final section uses the PPI Database to correlate breach of contract.

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Africa

Infrastructure Financing Trends in Africa 2013
Author/Publisher: Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (2014)

The report was mainly based on the data from 2009-2013 in the PPI database to analyze the investment trends in Africa.

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Building infrastructure through Public Private Partnerships in SubSaharan Africa: Lessons from South Africa
Author/Publisher: Afeez Olalekan Sanni, Maizon Hashim (2014)

This study published by Elsevier is aimed at identifying the challenges in the delivery of social and economic infrastructures in the region through public private partnership procurement arrangements. The PPI database was used to measure the number and investments of private projects in developing countries, 1990 – 2011.

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IMF Country Report on Cameroon
Author/Publisher: Jitendra Bissessur, Mario de Zamaróczy, Ejona Fuli, Kristen Himelein, Samah Mazraani, Jean Philippe Stijns, Du Prince Tchakoté, Jean van Houtte (2014)

The PPI database was used to provide data for measuring the PPPs in Cameroon since 1994 by all sectors and the development trend of PPP.

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Relationship Between State Institutions and Private Participation In Infrastructure In Developing Economies: A Case Study Approach
Author/Publisher: Michael Regan, Jim Smith, Peter Love (2013)

This conference paper attempts to identify the connection between efficiency-enhancing state institutions and private investment in infrastructure services for three developing and emerging economies in Africa: Kenya, Nigeria and Algeria. The case studies were selected from a wider study of developing nations using development classifications and data prepared by the World Economic Forum and the PPI Database.

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Investment Power in Africa: Where from and where to?
Author/Publisher: Anton Eberhard, Katharine Gratwick (2013)

This journal article is published by Georgetown Journal of International Affairs in 2013. Across Sub-Saharan Africa, the push towards private investment in electrical generation dates to the early 1990s, but the journey has not been smooth. However, this paper notes a number of success stories, including Kenya, South Africa and (potentially) Nigeria, whose policy innovations have replication potential in other Sub-Saharan African countries and beyond.

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Africa Development Indicators 2012-2013
Author/Publisher: World Bank (2012)

Data on committed nominal investment in potable water, transport, telecom, energy projects with private participation are from the World Bank Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database.

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Evaluation of the Demonstration Effect of IFC’s Involvement in Infrastructure in Africa
Author/Publisher: Castalia Advisory Group (2011)

This report by Castalia Advisory Group presents the results of the evaluation—comprising a survey of infrastructure investors, and case studies of four countries selected by the IFC: Kenya, Uganda, Cameroon and Mozambique. These case studies are based on interviews with senior government officials engaged in providing infrastructure in each country, and others, as well as desk research.

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Infrastructure finance: Uncertainty and change in Sub-Saharan Africa
Author/Publisher: PWC (2010)

This report explores the recent gains that Africa has made to bridge the infrastructure gap, the challenges facing stakeholders and the outlook for the future.

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East Asia and the Pacific

An Empirical Analysis of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Projects in the Renewable Energy Sector of China
Author/Publisher: Chuan Chen, Qi Wang, Rui Ying Fang (2013)

Aiming at a better understanding of the activities and trends of the private sector in the renewable energy sector of China, this research paper published by Advanced Materials Research retrieved project level data from the Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) database of the World Bank, and examined the data from various dimensions, such as investment size, PPI type, technology, and geographical distribution. Important and interesting observations were drawn such as emerging western China market and fast growing biomass sub-sector.

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Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Asia-Pacific: The 2011 Infrascope
Author/Publisher: The Economist Intelligence Unit (2011)

This document comprises a summary and analysis of a benchmark index and learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in the Asia-Pacific region to carry out sustainable public-private infrastructure partnerships. The index was built by the Economist Intelligence Unit and commissioned by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Data for the quantitative indicators are drawn from the World Bank-PPI database, and from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Risk Briefing service.

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Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Role of Public Private Partnership in Infrastructure Development (Focus on Albania)
Author/Publisher: Ermela Kripa (2013)

This article is published by Advanced Research in Scientific Areas in 2013. The aim of this article is to present the determinants of PPP influencing infrastructure development in Albania. The database was used to measure the number of the projects in the selected countries by sector.

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Infrastructure Investments in Eastern Neighbours and Central Asia (ENCA)
Author/Publisher: Olga Kravets (2013)

This report published by the European Investment Bank (EIB) is aimed to spotlight the key infrastructure investments issues and trends in the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region. Investment volumes in the region are estimated basing on the available data from PPI database and other MDBs.

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Latin America and the Caribbean

Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: The 2014 Infrascope
Author/Publisher: The Economist Intelligence Unit (2014)

This report is an informational tool and benchmarking index that assesses the capacity of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to carry out sustainable public-private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure. The analysis and content of this index covers the period from May 2014 to August 2014. The index was built by The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and is commissioned by the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF), a member of the Inter-American Development Bank Group.

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Privatization, Institutional Reform, and Performance in the Latin American Electricity Sector
Author/Publisher: Lenin Balza, Raul Jimenez, Jorge Mercado (2013)

This report is published by Inter-American Development Bank in 2013 and explores the relationship between private sector participation, institutional reform, and performance of the electricity sector in 18 Latin American countries over the last four decades.

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South Asia

Credit Rating Methods for Public–Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Asia
Author/Publisher: Jiro Tsunoda, Ramraj Pai, Pawan Agrawal (2014)

This working paper was published by the Asian Development Bank in 2014. The PPI database was used to provide data supporting the section on Constraints Faced by Public–Private Partnership Projects”.

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Growth and infrastructure investment in India: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities
Author/Publisher: Aswini Kumar Mishra, Kunapareddy Narendra, Bibhu Prasad Kar (2013)

This report was published by Economic Annals in 2013 and analyses the recent scenario of infrastructure investment in India, with the recognition that inadequate infrastructure is one of the major constraints on India’s ability to sustain high GDP growth.

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Energy

An Empirical Analysis of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Projects in the Renewable Energy Sector of China
Author/Publisher: Chuan Chen, Qi Wang, Rui Ying Fang (2013)

Aiming at a better understanding of the activities and trends of the private sector in the renewable energy sector of China, this research paper published by Advanced Materials Research retrieved project level data from the Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) database of the World Bank, and examined the data from various dimensions, such as investment size, PPI type, technology, and geographical distribution. Important and interesting observations were drawn such as emerging western China market and fast growing biomass sub-sector.

Read more

Investment Power in Africa: Where from and where to?
Author/Publisher: Anton Eberhard, Katharine Gratwick (2013)

This journal was published by Georgetown Journal of International Affairs in 2013. Across Sub-Saharan Africa, the push towards private investment in electrical generation dates to the early 1990s, but the journey has not been smooth. However, this paper notes a number of success stories, including Kenya, South Africa and (potentially) Nigeria, whose policy innovations have replication potential in other Sub-Saharan African countries and beyond.

Read more

Privatization, Institutional Reform, and Performance in the Latin American Electricity Sector
Author/Publisher: Lenin Balza, Raul Jimenez, Jorge Mercado (2013)

This report was published by Inter America Development Bank (IDB) in 2013. This paper explores the relationship between private sector participation, institutional reform, and performance of the electricity sector in 18 Latin American countries over the last four decades.

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Does Private Sector Participation Improve Performance in Electricity and Water Distribution?
Author/Publisher: Katharina Gasser, Alexander Popov, and Nataliya Pushak (2009)

This study addresses the question with a rigorous econometric approach using a sample of 301 utilities with private participation and 926 state-owned utilities in 71 developing and transition economies. It is one of the most authoritative studies on the impact of private participation on the performance of utilities across the developing world. The PPI Database provided the basic contractual information on the 301 utilities with private participation, and thus helped to define sample of private utilities.

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Water and Sanitation

Public–private partnerships for water in Asia: a review of two decades of experience
Author/Publisher: Christiane Zarfl, Alexander E. Lumsdon, Jurgen Berlekamp, Laura Tydecks, Klement Tockner (2014)

This journal article by International Journal of Water Resources Development reviews the development of public–private partnerships (PPP) in water services in Asia over the last two decades and situates the Asian experience within the wider global context. This paper utilizes PPI Database mentioning it is one of the two most reliable and complete data-sets available of PPPs in the water sector along with the Private Sector Participation in Water Database (PSP Water) maintained by Global Water Intelligence (2014), which also includes developed countries.

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Public-private partnerships for urban water utilities
Author/Publisher: Philippe Marin (2009)

This study published by the World Bank and PPIAF analyzes more than 15 years of experience with PPP for urban water utilities to better understand the contribution of PPPs to help improve the provision of water and sanitation services. This was a SDNVP flagship report and one of the most rigorous and comprehensive reviews of the impact of the private participation on the performance of water utilities.

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Does Private Sector Participation Improve Performance in Electricity and Water Distribution?
Author/Publisher: Katharina Gasser, Alexander Popov, and Nataliya Pushak (2009)

This study addresses the question with a rigorous econometric approach using a sample of 301 utilities with private participation and 926 state-owned utilities in 71 developing and transition economies. It is one of the most authoritative studies on the impact of private participation on the performance of utilities across the developing world. The PPI Database provided the basic contractual information on the 301 utilities with private participation, and thus helped to define sample of private utilities.

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Transport

The influence of the institutional environment on public–private partnership transport projects
Author/Publisher: J. Pérez-D’Oleo, C. Castro, I. Herraiz, S. Carpintero (2015)

This paper published by Wit Press carries out a statistical analysis of the institutional environment indicators, and data of public–private investment, for 80 countries. The analysis identifies the most relevant institutional factors that affect the implementation of PPP projects.

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Vulnerability in the Transportation Public Private Partnerships
Author/Publisher: Mohsin Ali Soomro, X. Zhang (2013)

This conference paper is inspired by the existence of such a large number of failed and flawed transportation PPPs around the world, and has investigates the cases of transportation PPPs failures observed in the past two decades, and evaluates the failure drivers, which caused the PPP failures. This research is based on case studies of failed transportation PPP projects around the world. The failure cases are identified through the World Bank‘s PPI database and an extensive literature review.

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