Private Participation in Infrastructure Database
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Publications

Since its creation, the Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Project Database has been the main information source for trends in private participation in infrastructure in developing economies and for a large number of publications. These reading lists contain the publications based primarily on information provided by the PPI Project Database.
publication

World Bank and MIGA Policy Research Working Paper 6738 (2014)
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"Triggers of Contract Breach: Contract Design, Shocks, or Institutions?" This paper constructs a large contract-level data set to examine factors that trigger breach of foreign investment contracts. The PPI Database and UNCTAD were the primary sources.
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The World Bank Infrastructure Policy Unit (2013)
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"The Effects of Country Risk and Conflict on Infrastructure PPPs" Through an empirical analysis of the relationship between private participation in infrastructure and country risk, the paper shows that country risk ratings are a reliable predictor of infrastructure investment levels in developing countries. The PPI database was used to measure the level of private participation in the countries in the study.
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Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (2013)
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"World Investment and Political Risk 2013: Washington, DC: MIGA, World Bank Group. DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0039-9". This flagship report produced by MIGA is divided into three sections: World Investment Trends and Corporate Perspectives, The Political Risk Insurance Industry and Breach of Contract. The final section uses the PPI Database to correlate breach of contract.
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World Economic Forum’s 2010 study
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Paving the Way: Maximizing the Value of Private Finance in Infrastructure explores the role of private capital in meeting the world’s growing infrastructure needs. This flagship report of the World Economic Forum showcases both the opportunities and the challenges associated with attracting and involving private investors in the provision of infrastructure.  The report outlines features of successful infrastructure projects using illustrations from countries that have tapped private finance markets.  The PPI Database was used to show the trends in private infrastructure investment in developing countries.
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Economist Intelligence Unit (2010)
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Evaluating the environment for public-private partnerships in Latin America and the Caribbean: The 2010 Infrascope A learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean to carry out sustainable Public-Private Partnerships in infrastructure. The index was built by the Economist Intelligence Unit and was supported financially by the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF), a member of the Inter-American Development Bank Group. Data for the quantitative indicators were drawn from PPI Database and from the EIU’s Risk briefing service.

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The 2010 Country Diagnostic Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD)
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The study was an unprecedented knowledge program on Africa’s infrastructure that broke new ground with primary data collection efforts covering network service infrastructures (ICT, power, water & sanitation, road transport, rail transport, sea transport, and air transport) from 2001 to 2006 in 24 selected African countries. The AICD project benefited considerably from work done by the PPI database, which it would otherwise have had to cover by the team. The PPI Database enabled to bring both public and private infrastructure funding together in a common and comprehensive financing framework at no cost for AICD.
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Marin, Philippe, (2009) (World Bank and PPIAF)
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Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Water Utilities: A review of experiences in developing countries analyzes more than 15 years of experience with PPP for urban water utilities to better understand the contribution of PPPs to help improve the provision of water and sanitation services. This was a SDNVP flagship report and one of the most rigorous and comprehensive reviews of the impact of the private participation on the performance of water utilities. The PPI Database made possible to analyze the evolution of water PPPs from 1984 to 2007 by providing key contractual information (such as contracts signed, types of contract used for each project, private sponsors, status of each project as of 2007, investment commitments). Without the PPI Database, the study would have had to start by collecting such information. The PPI Database also facilitated the selection of a representative sample for the study by providing the universe of water PPP contracts.
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Gassner, Katharina et at (2009) (World Bank and PPIAF)
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Does Private Sector Participation Improve Performance in Electricity and Water Distribution? addresses the question with a rigorous econometric approach using a sample of 301 utilities with private participation and 926 state-owned utilities in 71 developing and transition economies. This study is one of the most authoritative studies on the impact of private participation on the performance of utilities across the developing world. The PPI Database provided the basic contractual information on the 301 utilities with private participation, and thus helped to define sample of private utilities. Without the PPI Database, the study would have had to start by collecting the basic contractual information on private utilities, identifying them and defining their scope.
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UNCTAD’s World Investment Report 2008
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The study examines the ways, extent and conditions under which transnational corporations can contribute to meeting the infrastructure challenge. UNCTAD specializes in knowledge products and databases as one its missions is to provide research, policy analysis and data collection for the debates of government representatives and experts. The report used extensively the PPI Database as one of the key sources of information for analyzing FDI in infrastructure as it has information that was not provided by another UNCTAD’s databases.
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Recent trends in private activity in infrastructure: What the shift away from risk means for policy
Author: Clemencia Torres de Mästle and Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Gridlines No. 31, Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), May 2008.
In 2006, private participation in infrastructure continued its recovery for the third consecu¬tive year from the steep downturn of the late 1990s. Activity was more evenly spread across all developing regions. However, it became more concentrated in less risky subsectors, reflecting a lower appetite for risk among private investors. Greater selectivity has facili¬tated private sector’s renewed interest, but it also raises questions about how governments can best tap private operators’ abilities in high-need, high-risk areas such as water and elec¬tricity distribution. Recent projects in these areas indicate that the public sector—together with the international financial institutions—remains the main source of investment funding. As governments create arrangements to attract private participation, they also need to ensure an equitable distribution of benefits among investors, taxpayers, and service users.
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The role of developing country firms in infrastructure: New data confirm the emergence of a new class of investors
Author: Michael Schur, Stephan von Klaudy, Georgina Dellacha, Apurva Sanghi, and Nataliya Pushak
Source: Gridlines Note No 3, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), May 2008.
Developing country investors have emerged as a major source of investment finance for infrastructure projects with private participation. This update of the article originally written by M. Schur, et al in 2006, shows that, indeed, during 1998–2006 these investors accounted for more of this finance in South Asia and East Asia and Pacific—and for more in transport across developing regions—than did investors from developed countries. Even though the policy implications are not yet fully clear for policy makers, this development suggests a need to rethink the criteria used in selecting investors in schemes for private participation, which have been biased toward large international operators.
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India leads developing nations in private sector investment: But the region needs more investment to meet demands
Author: Clive Harris
Source: Gridlines No. 30, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), March 2008.
India has had the most success attracting more private investment in infrastructure in 2006 than any other developing country. Long-standing policies in most other South Asian countries are beginning to bear fruit as well. Nevertheless, delivering the infrastructure services needed to sustain and accelerate growth in South Asia remains a major challenge. Estimates suggest that closing the gap in service provision and meeting future needs will require infrastructure investment in the range of 7–8 percent of GDP a year. The private sector can do more to help close the region’s infrastructure service deficit.
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Private participation in infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia: A look at recent trends
Author: Maria Vagliasindi and Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Gridlines No. 26, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), August 2007.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia is attracting more investment to infrastructure projects with private participation than any other developing region except Latin America. Members of the European Union (EU) and countries seeking membership account for most of the investment. The Russian Federation is emerging as a leader both in attracting private activity and in sponsoring projects in neighboring countries. Telecommunications and energy are the leading sectors. But new regulatory challenges are emerging as a result of exclusivity periods in telecommunications and greater market concentration and vertical reintegration in energy.
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Revival of private participation in infrastructure: A look at recent trends in developing countries and their policy implications
Author: Michel Kerf and Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Gridlines No. 16, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), Jan 2007.
Private participation in infrastructure projects in developing countries plummeted after the 1997 Asian crisis and followed a broadly declining trend for several years afterward. However, in 2004 and 2005 investment in such projects increased sharply. Meanwhile, the distribution of investment across sectors and regions, and the allocation of risks between public and private parties, were shifting. Private sponsors started putting more emphasis on risk mitigation strategies. To take advantage of private sponsors’ renewed interest in infrastructure projects, governments need to create risk sharing arrangements that attract private operators while also benefiting governments, taxpayers, and users.
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Urban infrastructure finance from private operators: what have we learned from recent experience?
Author: Annez, Patricia Clarke
Source: Policy, Research working paper No. WPS 4045 World Bank, Washington, D.C., November 2006.
The paper examines the role of private participation in infrastructure (PPI) in mobilizing finance for key urban services, that is, urban roads, municipal solid waste management, and water and sanitation since the early 1990s. The review indicates that for financing urban services, PPI has disappointed-playing a far less significant role than was hoped for. The author identifies good reasons-practical, political, economic and institutional-for this disappointment. Experience shows that there are a number of features that raise the risk profile of urban infrastructure for private investors. Many of the measures that could reduce the risk profile are outside the control of many cities, others unlikely to change, and yet another group of steps to be taken that would improve prospects for urban service provision, whether in the hands of public or private operators. These findings suggest a more pragmatic and selective approach to the focus on PPI as a source of finance.
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Financing infrastructure in Africa: How the region can attract more project finance
Author: Robert Sheppard, Stephan von Klaudy, and Geeta Kumar
Source: Gridlines No. 13, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), Sept 2006.
Sub-Saharan Africa receives only a small share of private investment in infrastructure. One reason for this is its difficulties in getting project finance—difficulties that stem from the low creditworthiness of most African countries, the limits of local financial markets, and the risk profiles typical of infrastructure projects. Whether the region can attract more private foreign currency funding for infrastructure will depend in part on the ability to reduce foreign exchange risks. But in some countries local currency sources, especially local capital markets, also offer good potential.
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Reform, private capital needed to develop infrastructure in Africa: Problems and prospects for private participation
Author: James Leigland and William Butterfield
Source: Gridlines No. 8, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), May 2006.
In Sub-Saharan Africa the story of private participation in infrastructure has been largely one of telecommunications. With other sectors taken into account, the levels of private activity have been low for the past 15 years. Still, the overwhelming need for infrastructure has motivated regional economic organizations to push for an ambitious agenda of private participation. But to begin solving Africa’s infrastructure investment problems will also require broad institutional reform along with greater financial commitments by governments and donors.
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The role of developing country firms in infrastructure: A new class of investors emerges
Author: Michael Schur, Stephan von Klaudy, and Georgina Dellacha
Source: Gridlines No. 3, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), April 2006.
Developing country investors have emerged as a major source of investment finance for infrastructure projects with private participation. Indeed, in 1998–2004 these investors accounted for more of this finance in transport across developing regions—and for more in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa—than did investors from developed countries. For policymakers this development suggests a need to rethink the criteria used in selecting investors in schemes for private participation, which have been biased toward large international operators.
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Private Infrastructure: Emerging Market Sponsors Dominate Private Flows
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 299, the World Bank, October 2005.
Investment flows to infrastructure projects with private participation in developing countries grew by 12 percent to US$64 billion in 2004. Telecommunications investments drove the growth, rising by 35 percent, while investment flows to other infrastructure sectors fell by 20 percent. Greenfield projects were the most common type of private participation, and management contracts became more frequent.
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Private Infrastructure: Activity Down by 13 Percent in 2003
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 274, the World Bank, September 2004.
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in 2003. Data for the year show that investment in projects with private participation totaled almost US$50 billion—back to 1994 levels. About 100 projects reached financial closure. Electricity was the only subsector—and East Asia and the Middle East and North Africa the only developing regions—that saw private activity grow in 2003.
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Infrastructure Projects: A Review of Canceled Private Projects
Author: Clive Harris, John Hodges, Michael Schur, and Padmesh Shukla
Source: Public Policy for the Private Sector 252. World Bank, Washington , D.C. , January 2003
In recent years the renegotiation and, even more, the cancellation of private infrastructure projects in developing countries have made the headlines in the world's financial press. For a variety of reasons the renegotiation of projects is not an unusual occurrence. But as this Note explains, only 48 private infrastructure projects in developing countries were canceled in 1990–2001, a small fraction of the nearly 2,500 projects that reached financial closure over this period.
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Infrastructure Projects: A Review of Canceled Private Projects
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 267, the World Bank, February 2004
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in 2002. Investment in projects with private participation totaled US$47.5 billion - falling back to 1994 levels - and 128 projects reached financial closure. Energy was the only sector in which private activity grew in 2002, driven by natural gas transport projects. Europe and Central Asia and South Asia saw private activity grow in 2002. And in low-income countries private activity rose to among the group's highest investment levels in 1990-2002.
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Private Participation in Infrastructure: Trends in Developing Countries in 1990-2001
Author: Izaguirre, Ada Karina
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Drawing on data from the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) database, this new book provides an overview of the nearly 2500 private infrastructure projects that were implemented between the period 1990-2001 in 132 developing countries and mobilized investment of some $754 billion.
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Private Infrastructure: A Review of Projects with Private Participation, 1990–2001
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 250, the World Bank, October 2002
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in 2001 and summarizes trends in 1990–2001. Data for 2001 show that total investment in projects with private participation was US$57 billion— back to 1995 levels—and 150 projects reached financial closure.
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Private Infrastructure: A Review of Projects with Private Participation, 1990–2000
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 246, the World Bank, June 2002
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note provides an overview of private activity in infrastructure in developing countries between 1990 and 2000. Three main trends characterized that decade: Private activity in infrastructure grew each year except 1998 and 1999.Most developing countries introduced some form of private activity in infrastructure. But Latin America and East Asia captured most of the investment.
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Private Infrastructure: Are the Trends in Low-Income Countries Different?
Author: Melissa Houskamp and Nicola Tynan
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 246, the World Bank, June 2002
This Note, based on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Project Database, reviews trends in infrastructure projects with private participation in low-income countries. Four main conclusions arise. Surprisingly, the proportion of countries with at least one project—81 percent—is higher among low-income than middle-income countries. As in middle-income countries, most investment has been in telecommunications or energy projects. However, in low-income countries, well over half the projects are greenfield . And the scale of private participation in low-income countries lags far behind that in middle-income countries.
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Private Infrastructure: Private Activity Fell by 30 Percent in 1999
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 215, the World Bank, September 2000
This Note, which draws on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Project Database, provides an overview of recent trends in infrastructure projects with private participation in developing countries. Three main trends have emerged during the past decade. Private activity in infrastructure grew dramatically between 1990 and 1997, but declined because of the financial crises of 1998–99. Most developing countries have some private activity in infrastructure, but Latin America and East Asia dominate investment.
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Recent Trends in Private Participation in Infrastructure
Author: Neil Roger
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 196, the World Bank, September 1999.
Private activity in infrastructure--as measured by investment flows to projects with private participation--grew dramatically in developing countries between 1990 and 1997, from about US$16 billion to US$120 billion. It then declined by about a fifth to US$95 billion in 1998, a result of the Asian financial crisis that began in mid-1997. Private activity in 1998, sustained by a US$19 billion telecommunications privatization in Brazil , remained above the 1996 level. Investment over the past eight years totaled nearly US$500 billion. Private investment now averages about 40 percent of the total for infrastructure in developing countries. More goes to telecommunications and energy than other sectors, and more to East Asia and Latin America than other regions. But almost all developing countries have some private activity in infrastructure.
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Private participation in electricity: The challenge of achieving commercial viability and improving services
Author: Bernard Tenenbaum and Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Gridlines No. 21, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), May 2007.
Private activity in electricity in developing countries has stabilized at modest levels since 2001. The main focus remains greenfield power plants, particularly those with contractual arrangements that protect investors from sector risks. Long-term guarantees of regulatory performance and leases and management contracts have encouraged some private activity in distribution. Attracting significantly more investment will require greater commercial viability, including cost-reflective tariffs, better collection ratios, well-targeted and sustainable subsidies, and improved quality and reliability of service. In most countries, a move toward cost-reflective tariffs will not be politically feasible unless it goes hand in hand with visible improvements in quality of service.
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Private Power Projects: Annual Investment Flows Grew by 44 Percent in 2003
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 281, the World Bank, December 2004.
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database , this Note reviews developments in the electricity sector in 2003. Data for the year show that total investment in electricity projects with private participation amounted to US$14 billion. Private activity grew strongly in East Asia and Pacific, but remained stable or fell in other regions.
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Private Participation in Energy
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 208, the World Bank, May 2000
From 1990 to 1999 there were 700 energy projects in developing countries involving private participation. Investment in these projects totaled nearly US$190 billion, and foreign capital was a major source of funds. Global developers were the top ten sponsors of private energy projects in developing countries. Their projects accounted for just over a third of total investment. This Note surveys the trends by region, by country income level, and by type of project. It also explores the consequences of the recent Asian financial crisis for future investment in Asian energy markets.
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Private Participation in the Transmission and Distribution of Natural Gas-Recent Trends
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 176, the World Bank, April 1999
Between 1990 and 1997 twenty-six developing countries introduced private participation in the transmission and distribution of natural gas. This Note, which draws on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) Project Database, provides an overview of the patterns and trends in the projects in these countries. The form of private participation varies--ranging from greenfield projects to export natural gas from Algeria to Europe or to create a natural gas distribution market in Mexico to the privatization of existing assets in Argentina and Hungary . During 1990-97 the private sector took on the operations or construction risk of seventy-seven natural gas transport projects, with investments totaling US$18.9 billion.
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Private Participation in the Electricity Sector-Recent Trends
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 154, the World Bank, September 1998
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews private electricity projects that reached financial closure between 1990 and 1997. The Note looks at patterns across regions and in types of private participation. The review identifies four underlying trends: a regional and national concentration of projects, a higher concentration of investment in generation than in transmission and distribution, a dominance of greenfield projects and divestitures compared with management and operations contracts, and differing regional approaches to private participation.
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Private Telecom Projects - Private Activity Down 15 Percent in 2003
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 288, the World Bank, April 2005.
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the telecommunications sector in 2003. Data for the year show that investment in projects with private participation was back to 1996 levels. Two regions - the Middle East and North Africa and Europe and Central Asia - saw private activity grow in 2003. And developing country companies were the most active sponsors.
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Private Participation in Telecommunications - Recent Trends
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 204, the World Bank, December 1999.
More than ninety developing economies opened their telecommunications sector to private participation between 1990 and 1998. These countries transferred to the private sector the operating or construction risk, or both, of more than 500 projects, attracting investment commitments of US$214 billion. Two-thirds of that amount has been invested in expanding and modernizing networks; the other third has gone to governments as divestiture revenues or license fees. The investment shows three main trends: Latin America is in the lead. Private participation takes place in increasingly competitive market structures. And divestitures and greenfield projects outnumber operations and management contracts.
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Worldwide trends in private participation in roads: Growing activity, growing government support
Author: Cesar Queiroz and Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Gridlines No. 37, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), May 2008
Private participation in roads revived strongly in developing countries in 2005–06. The activity was concentrated in greenfield projects and in Asia and Latin America. The main reason for the revival has been the willingness of governments to provide support needed to attract the private sector. Nevertheless, governments need to be aware of the potential risks of such support. And because of the monopolistic features of road projects, they also need to ensure good governance so that the public reaps the full benefits of the private sector’s involvement.
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The Growing and Evolving Business of Private Participation in Airports: New Trends, New Actors Emerging
Author: Doug Andrew and Silviu Dochia
Source: Gridlines No. 15, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), September 2006.
Private sector management and financing of airports has continued to expand in developing countries. Long-term concessions for airports are the predominant model today, with governments often taking a minority shareholding in the venture. Careful attention to policy design, regulatory issues, and management of concessions will continue to be important in ensuring that private participation delivers efficient and effective airport infrastructure services.
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Toll Roads: Recent Trends in Private Participation
Author: Gisele F. Silva
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 224, the World Bank, December 2000.
During the 1990s developing countries increasingly turned to the private sector for construction, management, and maintenance of toll roads. Between 1990 and 1999, US$61 billion of private investment was committed to 279 projects in 26 developing countries, comprising 34,369 kilometers of toll highways, bridges and tunnels. This Note analyzes the main trends in private participation in toll roads in developing countries using figures from the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database.
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Private Participation in the Airport Sector-Recent Trends
Author: Gisele F. Silva
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 202, the World Bank, November 1999.
During the 1990s private sponsors have participated in projects involving eighty-nine airports in twenty-three developing countries, with investment totaling US$5.4 billion. About three-fifths of this investment was carried out in 1998 alone, and about two-fifths related to the award of the Argentine airport system that year. Analysis of the investment patterns shows that Latin America leads in attracting private investors, operations and management contracts with major capital expenditure have been the main vehicle for investment, and governments are transferring networks to the private sector more often than single airports or stand-alone facilities.
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Private Participation in Port Facilities-Recent Trends
Author: Dirk Sommer
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 193, the World Bank, September 1999.
The private sector has become increasingly involved in the operation of common-user port facilities during the 1990s, following public sector dominance of the sector since the 1940s. During the past decade the reform of port administration has gained momentum in industrial and developing countries alike. Between 1990 and 1998, 112 port projects with private participation reached financial closure in twenty-eight developing countries, with investment commitments totaling more than US$9 billion. Most projects are in East Asia and Latin America , and most are long-term concessions. This Note provides an overview of the emerging trends in developing countries and outlines the main issues for the future. These issues include sustaining competition at a regional level, across networks, and with other transport sectors, such as road and rail.
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Private Participation in the Rail Sector-Recent Trends
Author: Nicola Tynan
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 186, the World Bank, June 1999.
Private participation in the railway sector has increased significantly during the 1990s, with fourteen developing countries reaching financial closure on thirty-seven projects in 1990-97. Although this resurgence in private participation is still in its infancy, the experience in Latin America highlights some lessons. For example, the renegotiation of freight concessions in Argentina has revealed the importance of establishing flexible contracts and setting clear renegotiation or other adjustment mechanisms in advance. Developing countries can also learn from the experience of OECD countries with different models of private involvement. For example, the benefits of splitting infrastructure provision from service operation have driven many of the reforms in OECD countries and may offer one solution to the access pricing issues faced when vertically integrated companies are concessioned with open access requirements.
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Private Participation in the Water and Sewerage Sector: Recent Trends
Author: Gisele Silva, Nicola Tynan, Yesim Yilmaz
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 147, the World Bank, August 1998.
By the end of 1997, more than US$25 billion was committed to water and sewerage projects with private participation in 35 developing countries. Shows the overwhelming dominance of concession contracts compared with divestitures, greenfield projects, and management contracts, and that there are still only a few international companies sponsoring and operating most contracts.
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Private Water Projects: Investment Flows Up By 36 Percent in 2004
Author: Ada Karina Izaguirre and Catherine Hunt
Source: Public Policy Journal No. 297, the World Bank, July 2005
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private activity in water was concentrated in a few countries and focused on treatment plants and smaller projects.
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Private participation in water: Toward a new generation of projects?
Author: Philippe Marin and Ada Karina Izaguirre
Source: Gridlines No. 14, Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), Sept 2006.
In the water sector of developing countries the investment boom of the late 1990s has been followed by declining investment flows and the cancellation or distress of several high-profile projects. Enthusiasm has been replaced by doubts. But recent data paint a more nuanced picture. Activity in 2005 suggests that private participation in the water sector is entering a new phase. New private activity is focusing on smaller projects, a few countries, and bulk facilities. Contractual arrangements involving utilities are combining private operation with public financing. And new players are entering the market.
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